The papacy was associated with the most significant reforms of the medieval Church.
Many disreputable popes were produced because of the rivalries and intrigues of the local nobles of Rome.
The nobles were only restrained by the Holy Roman emperors.
Most of them are worthy and conscientious churchmen, who would occasionally intervene to appoint their own candidates.
The papacy was put at the head of the movement for Church reform by Pope Leo IX, a German bishop who was influenced by the ideas of the Cluniac type.
The more radical reformers felt that the successors of Peter and Christ should be under the control of a reform-minded emperor.
The Italian was the main promoter of these ideas.
He was the archdeacon of Rome, a key office in the Church's administration.
In 1059, thanks to his efforts, a new system was brought into being for the election of popes.
Prior to that time, the popes had been elected by the entire clergy of the Roman diocese, subject to the approval of the city's populace, an arrangement that lent itself readily to interference by local nobles and the emperors.
When a pope died, the cardinals met in seclusion to name his successor.
The body automatically furnished candidates for the papal office because they usually chose from their own membership.
Pope Gregory VII was chosen by the cardinals.
He applied himself to a sweeping reform of the Church because of his previous training.
To strengthen the papacy was one of his main objectives.
A kind of "cabinet" for the pope was formed when the officers in charge of these agencies were chosen from among the cardinals.
The authority of the pope went beyond Rome.
The core of the Church was constituted by the bishops.
The pope was the supreme bishop.
The papal letters run to thousands of volumes and he kept in touch with them.
In order to make regular visits to Rome, bishops and archbishops were required to travel a lot.
The popes received large revenues from all over Europe, including "Peter's pence," an annual tax on Christian families in England, as well as income from their extensive properties in Italy.
The last certificates were issued to Christians by the pope to reduce punishments for sins committed in one's life.
Administrative and political as well as religious, charitable, and artistic were some of the uses of the revenues.
The Papal influence over society was reinforced by the power of the Discipline.
Christians are deprived of the benefit of the sacraments.
Excommunication was considered a fearful penalty since the sacraments were important to salvation.
Clergy, noblemen, and commoners were usually in agreement with the threat or use of excommunication.
The churches were closed and the sacraments were suspended for the entire area.
The ruler could not ignore the interdict because he was afraid that his subjects' souls were in danger.
There were limits to the pope's effectiveness.
The pope had to lift his order if a person who had been excommunicated showed genuine repentance.
Extreme measures, like the interdict, can often backfire.
If a ruler had the support of his people, the interdict might cause them to rally behind him.
Through the channels and agencies of the Church, the papacy could exert a powerful influence on popular thought and behavior.
The pope could spread his ideas and exert active leadership with the help of proclamations, letters, and speeches.
The church schools, the religious orders, and the parish priests were all in contact with the people at his command.
There were new or revived heresies as the Church grew stronger and better organized.
The Church's beliefs were denied and despised.
Beliefs like this were spread widely in medieval Europe.
They were found in the Balkans throughout the Middle Ages and in western Europe in the 12th century.
Pope Innocent III declared a crusade against the Albigensians, and French nobles suppressed the rebellion.
Even after the crusade was over, heresy smoldered.
Pope Gregory IX established a permanent court for finding and trying heretics to snuff out the remaining embers.
The pope's grand inquisitor was located in the south of France.
The towns and cities of the area were sent by him.
In the public square of each place, the deputies would announce their mission and then call for people to testify about suspected heretics.
In pursuing their inquiries, the deputies followed common judicial practice of the period in using torture to wring confessions from uncooperative suspects and denying accused persons legal counsel and the right to call or confront witnesses.
In the past, the proceedings were conducted in secret.
Lucky prisoners would confess early and give up their property.
The clergy were excommunicated and turned over to the civil authorities for more severe punishment if they were found to have relapsed into heresy after repenting.
The most common method of execution was burning at the stake, which gave heretics a chance to make a final repentance as the flames reached higher and higher.
They might have time to ask for God's forgiveness and salvation.
The fire would not be quenched; the body of a confirmed heretic was already forfeited.
The procedures and penalties of the Inquisition are cruel and inhumane to most people today.
The end of heresy justified the means in the view of medieval churchmen.
The "angelic doctor" of the Church, Thomas Aquinas, held that extreme punishments were necessary to protect souls from false beliefs.
His argument was honest.
The Inquisition was open to the worst abuses.
To level the accusation of heresy was a convenient way of getting rid of personal enemies, and the accusers were never identified by the court.
The Inquisition was abandoned after the 17th century despite the justifications advanced by its defenders.
Gregory wanted to go further.
The state is the main authority in Christian society.
Since the time of Constantine, Christian teaching has given civil monarchs a sacred character as well as secular authority.
The emperor had appointed bishops and abbots to their offices and had employed clergymen as administrators and as teachers in his palace school.
At all levels of feudal government, there was mutual support between the nobility and clergy.
Gregory and his successors wanted to change the relationship.
Gregory claimed to be the overlord of the rulers of western Europe.
He claimed that the Holy Roman emperor, Henry IV, was his vassal because he owed his crown to the Pope.
He objected to Henry's control over the selection of German bishops, who were important fief-holders and vassals of the emperor.
Henry invested in them with their symbols of office when he influenced their selection.
He wanted papal control over the elections.
Gregory did everything he could to bring Henry down.
He plotted with the emperor's enemies in Germany, was excommunicated, and turned to the Normans in southern Italy for military assistance against Henry's forces.
After his excommunication, Henry outmaneuvered his adversary by crossing the Alps in winter and appearing as a penitent before Gregory at the palace of Canossa.
He begged the pope to forgive him for his offenses and restore him to communion with the Church.
The pope excommunicated Henry after Gregory granted the request.
Gregory didn't have enough armed power to transform occasional victories into lasting victories.
Henry's successor agreed to give to the pope the investiture of religious symbols, but he retained the emperor's traditional influence over the selection of German bishops.
The papacy's control over the Church gave it more power against emperors and kings.
The papacy of Innocent III was at its highest point of power and prestige.
King John of England was forced to submit after a dispute with Innocent over the election of the archbishop of Canterbury.
After John was deposed, he was granted the realm of England as a fief from Rome, but only after paying homage to the pope.
John's subjection to the pope strengthened the king's hand in his disputes with his barons because of the international authority of Innocent III.
The Papal claims were carried further by the aggressive Boniface VIII.
King Philip of France was where he met his match.
Philip levied a tax on church properties.
This bold move was contrary to existing law and was answered by angry denunciations.
Philip's actions did not prevail over Boniface's words.
Philip sent a military force across the Alps to seize the aged pontiff after realizing that no peaceful solution could be found.
Boniface died of shock after being humiliated by the French soldiers.
The events set the stage for a decline of the papacy.
The popes reached themselves in their pursuit of worldly power, and the consequences would be bad in the 14th and 15th centuries.
They didn't win supremacy over secular rulers or end the power of secular rulers within the Church.
The popes won a position as true monarchs of the Church, governing and supervising its operations throughout the Catholic world, which they have retained to this day.
The Church was a powerful creative force throughout the Middle Ages despite the decline of the papacy.
The force is clearly shown in the arts and architecture.
Great churches sprang up rapidly throughout Europe after the return of stability and security in the eleventh century.
The church builders did not look for inspiration in the specific religious buildings of antiquity.
Christian churches differed from pagan temples in many ways, not the least of which was the purpose they served.
A pagan temple was the " home" of a god or goddess, which the ordinary worshiper would never enter.
The worshipers of God needed a building that would bring them closer to him.
The church was supposed to communicate something about the nature of God and the universe he ruled.
Lessons were taught to the mass of uneducated believers by paintings and sculptures.
The educated were meant to see the church as an image of the universe ruled by God.
The great churches of the Middle Ages created an impression of orderly and logical perfection and also mystical and inexpressible holiness, thanks to this theory.
The main impulse for the revival of building activity was provided by the monastic reform movement.
The most important buildings of this period were monastery churches.
The shrine of Toulouse's first bishop, who was killed about 250 years ago, is located in the Church of Saint-Sernin.
The construction of Europe's largest Romanesque church was financed by the pilgrims' contributions at a time when trade and travel were reviving.
It has a nave and four rows of side aisles, as well as transepts on each side and a semicircular apse at the end.
In architecture, the round arch and the vault served as basic structural elements.
The builders of the Middle Ages used these elements in a different way than the Romans did.
The central hall and side aisles were kept, but the apse was enlarged and chapels were built into its perimeter.
The cross arm was introduced at right angles to the nave.
The new plan gave more space for the clergy to participate in the Mass, as well as for members of the choir and worshipers to make private devotions.
It was the favored plan for large churches in the West.
The cruciform plan had obvious symbolic meaning.
The Church of Sainte-Marie Madeleine is located in eastern France.
The ceiling has arches that divide it into bays.
The bays are built of 45 tons of stone and have additional round arches across them.
To support this load, the side walls have to be thick, with narrow slit for windows that widen on the inside so that shafts of light swing across the interior as the sun moves across the sky.
The worshipers were faced in the direction of Jerusalem.
Romanesque churches and the arches and tunnel vaults used to support the roof have elements of Roman architectural forms in them.
The Romanesque architect chose stone over timber for the roofs of earlier churches.
One way to bridge the nave was through a tunnel.
The stonework below had to be supported by half-vaults built over the side aisles.
Large openings would have made the walls dangerously weak, so the size of windows was strictly limited.
The nave had scant daylight.
The nave was often divided into bays to admit more light.
This type of construction allowed for larger openings in the clerestory portion of the nave.
Romanesque builders often used the round dome.
In Italy, the campanile stood by itself a few feet away from the church; elsewhere in Europe, the tower was an important part of the main building.
The Gothic Style built over the "crossing" where the nave and the transept cross were, but more often a tower or a pair of towers formed part of the front of the building.
The church towers are a symbol of Western Christianity.
Along with architecture, painting and sculpture were also revived.
The renewed interest in these art forms was caused by the rapid pace of church building.
The glorification of God and the instruction of the faithful were the main reasons for the use of sculpture.
Romanesque sculpture shows the stark contrast between the medieval world and the ancient world.
Both are absent.
The sculptors of the eleventh and twelfth centuries took as their models the illustrated figures of medieval manuscripts.
The tradition of giving written documents with illustrations dates back to Egypt, where it was used for magic.
The idea of illustrating books for the sake of increasing the effect of the text on the reader--to give visual form to the ideas it contained or simply to break the monotony of the endless procession of words on a page--seems to have originated not long after the invention of books with