While both males and females may consider themselves bisexual, females are more likely to report having that sexual orientation.
Straight females show genital arousal when viewing male and female genitals, but straight males only show genital arousal when viewing female genitals.
Lesbian and straight females have similar brain activity when they view erotic photographs of males or females.
Gay and straight males have different neural responses when they view erotic photographs showing people of the sex they are more attracted to.
Bisexual arousal is more common in females than in males according to research.
Over time, the sexual behaviors of females seem to vary more than those of males, and their sexual behaviors are less consistent with their attitudes.
The findings suggest that females experience more sexual freedom than males.
Some people who don't experience sexual attraction are described as bisexual.
10 percent of females described their sexual attraction as low enough to be categorized as asexual if they were white, black, Indian, or Asian.
In the United Kingdom, almost 400,000 people said they had never felt sexual attraction.
The 1 percent statistic is the best one so far.
There has been very little research done on asexuality.
David Jay started the Asexual Visibility and Education Network in 2001 to educate people about their sexual orientation.
They feel like the absence of sexual attraction is a core part of their identity.
They may form close romantic relationships with other people.
This discussion makes it seem like sexual orientation is very easy to understand.
Understanding and describing sexual orientation is complex.
David Jay is asexual when people are asked to report their sexual orientation.
Some people consider themselves to be mostly an education network.
Some people experience differences in their biological sex or gender.
People may be intersept from describing themselves as either a man or a woman if they are given multiple categories to classify their sexual orientation.
I identified as bisexual when I first came out.
Not "box" or "label" that society currently has to offer me.
I thought I came across queer.
Straight ing seemed to fit everything I wanted in a word sexual males or that I could tell people when they asked.
Sexual orientation is a label that groups tend to use.
It's appropriate for them to have some feel.
Sexual orientation is not based on cultural, social, or emotional influences, but on the choice of words to describe it.
Their sexual orientation is straight if they are female.
Their sexual orientation is gay if they are male.
The males are influenced by biology.
Their sexual orientation is straight if they are male.
Their sexual orientation is lesbian if they are female.
Complete the learning goal activities to maximize your learning.
Explain the four biological factors that are associated with sexual orientation in your own words.
Most people know if they are attracted to females, males or both by their late teens or later.
Over time, this initial sexual orientation tends to remain stable regardless of who a person has sex with.
On the other hand, the environment could affect sexual orientation.
Sexual orientation could be influenced by factors such as genetics, hormones, and the brain.
Let's look into both of these possibilities.
The child identified with the parent who was different from them was thought to have a sexual attraction to that sex.
A boy would develop a same sex attraction.
Most children raised by gay or lesbian parents are straight.
The majority of studies have found no evidence that parents affect the sexual orientation of their children.
The attraction to the same sex for males and females is associated with gender nonconformity in childhood.
When girls prefer rough play and competitive sports and boys dress like girls, gender nonconformity may be seen.
It is not possible to say that following or not following gender roles causes sexual orientation.
A third variable could provide a link between following gender roles and sexual orientation.
When preschool- aged boys were exposed to chemicals that reduced the impact of testosterone, they showed less masculine play.
Sex roles may be influenced by biology.
There is a possibility that biology might affect sexual orientation.
The idea that if sexual orientation can be learned, then it can be unlearned is a way to explore whether the environment influences sexual orientation.
"Homosexual conversion" therapy can change a person's sexual orientation from gay, lesbian, or bisexual to straight.
Treatments that try to convert people's sexual orientations tend to emphasize that homosexual behavior is immoral, so treatment failures can lead to feelings of shame.
Conversion therapy may cause harm to mental health.
According to the American Psychological Association, conversion therapy efforts can involve some risk of harm.
Twins who share more genetic material are more likely to have the same sexual orientation.
The x sex chromosomes seem to be related to males being gay.
Females being lesbian are more likely to be exposed to androgens.
Males being gay are related to the amount of androgens produced by the testes during childhood.
Maternal influences of maternal may affect the development of the later immune system of male siblings in ways that increase their chances of being gay.
The brain structure and mental of straight females are more similar to that of gay males, so this structure may differ naturally in gay males or may come to differ due to their experiences.
The leader of the group that had been trying to convert people who are gay and lesbian to a straight sexual orientation decided that it was time to stop.
Several U.S. states and Canadian provinces have passed legislation banning the use of conversion therapy on children.
Most psychologists and physicians don't believe that sexual orientation is a choice or that it can be changed.
If the environment influences sexual orientation, research has not revealed what environmental factors are.
There are biological differences between people who are mostly straight and people who are mostly gay or lesbian.
Sexual orientation is related to biological factors according to the best available evidence.
There are four biological factors that seem to be related to sexual orientation.
Sexual orientation might be an inherited trait.
This idea can be investigated by identical and non-identical twins.
Twins have been studied for the incidence of gender-atypical behavior in childhood and gay sexual orientation in adulthood.
The research shows that there is a greater similarity in genderatypical childhood behavior and adult sexual orientation in identical twins, who have the same genetic makeup, than in fraternal twins, who are no more similar genetically than any other siblings born to the same parents.
In one study of almost 4,000 pairs of twins, it was found that shared genetics accounted for 40% of male twins' homosexual behavior but only 20% of female twins'.
Some part of homosexual behavior is believed to be caused by shared genetics.
Similar results were found in another study.
The research found that 48 percent of the female twins were lesbian.
Only 16 percent of the female twins were lesbian.
Only 6 percent of female siblings were lesbian.
The idea that genetics influences sexual orientation is consistent with this research.
There is evidence that points to this genetic influence.
The fact that gay males tend to have more gay relatives than other people suggests that attraction to other males tends to run in families.
The males on the mother's side of the family have an association with this.
A link was found between a marker on the X chromosomes and sexual orientation in males.
Other researchers have failed to find a specific gene for sexual orientation.
It seems unlikely that a single genes carries this trait.
Several genes may affect sexual orientation.
Other biological factors may affect sexual orientation.
Exposure to androgens in the womb might play a role in sexual orientation according to the best available evidence.
Men who are gay as adults are more likely to be pregnant with male fetuses.
Analyses of data from several studies showed that the probability of a man being gay was determined by the number of older male siblings he had.
The researchers wondered if the effect would depend on the man's right-handedness.
They had a preference for their hands.
They are more likely to be gay.
Sex orientation of later-born males seems to be related to being repeatedly pregnant with male babies.
Being a male with older male siblings causes a male to be gay.
The effect is seen in girls with congenital adrenal hyperplasia who have higher levels of androgens.
As these girls grow, they have a tendency to be lesbian or bisexual.
The evidence is suggestive but less consistent for males.
In males, higher levels of androgens during childhood are associated with bone development in the hands, feet, and arms.
According to research, males who are sexually attracted to males have less long bone growth in those areas than males who are sexually attracted to females.
There is an association between low levels of childhood androgens and being gay as a man.
According to some research, males who have older brothers are more likely to be gay as adults than are first born males.
The effect is limited to males who are right- handed.
The effect of being raised with older brothers does not seem to correlate with being gay.
The effect seems to be biological.
One hypothesis is that with repeated pregnancies of male fetuses, mothers may develop an immune response against substances produced by male fetuses but not by female fetuses.
The development of male fetus may be influenced by the maternal antibodies.
There is a chance that mothers of non- right- handed babies don't produce the antibodies.
Fetal males that are not right handed may have brain features that make them unaffected by maternal antibodies.
Future research is likely to investigate both of these possibilities.
The brain's master regulatory structure is thought to be related to sexual orientation.
Simon LeVay found that an area of the hypothalamus that is usually used to divide males and females was only half as large in males who were gay.
The size of this area in gay males was similar to that in straight females.
Straight males were shown to have more brain activity when they smelled a female pheromone than when they sniffed a male one.
Straight females showed more activation when they sniffed a male pheromone than a female.
Gay males had a pattern of activation in the hypothalamus that was more similar to that of females than that of straight males.
Both of these studies can be criticized because they don't mean that one causes the other.
Whether being straight or gay results in changes to brain structure or function, or whether a third variable is responsible for all these effects, is not determined by a size difference or activation difference in any one part of the brain.
Some researchers propose that the size of the hypothalamus is determined by the amount of androgens in the mother's body.
Gay males and straight males may have an impact on the size of the hypothalamus.
The current evidence doesn't show a connection between brain regions and sexual orientation.
The evidence shows that biological processes play a role in sexual orientation.
What degree biology might contribute to the sexual orientations of people who are gay, lesbian, bisexual, or straight is still being investigated.
People who are not straight are often mistreated in response to their sexual orientation.
John Mace got married in New York City.
Mr. Mace was married at the age of 91.
The two men met at the Juilliard School of Music in 1948, and became a couple in 1950.
Sex with someone of the same behavior was considered deviant in most Western cultures.
Same- sex sexual attraction was a part of the united States.
After the start of their relationship, Mr. dorr and Mr. Mace considered a mental illness until the diagnosis of "homosexuality" was removed.
New York is the fifth state to recognize marriage equality.
After many years of feeling like second class citizens, Dorr and Mace married the next year.
The attitudes toward gays and lesbians are becoming more positive.
Canada, Spain, Norway, Sweden, South Africa, and Portugal have legalized marriage equality.
The Supreme Court of the United States ruled in favor of marriage equality in 2015.
Marriage equality is legal in all states of the country.
The contemporary world is catching up with human history.
To make sure you know what you just read, write answers to the questions and check your answers.
Answers to the red Q questions can be found in Appendix B.
Sex is all around, and people seem to be fascinated by it.
Most people report feeling sexual attraction.
If you are part of the majority, you know that attraction is only the first step in having sex.
There are several subsections that look at what factors might motivate you to engage in sexual behaviors.
Complete the learning goal activities to maximize your learning.
Sex was not discussed in much of the history of psychology.
There was no discussion of the idea that people were motivated to have sex.
The motives for sexual behavior are vital to the survival of our species, and potentially important to individuals' well- being, according to many early theorists.
The desire to engage in sexual activity is what motivates it.
There is a significant desire for sex among many people, but what motivates them to have sex varies greatly.
Sexual motivation can be influenced by biology, environment and culture.
As you learn more about these factors, think about how they affect your motivation to have sex.
William women enjoyed orgasms and homosexual behaviors were more common than Masters and Virginia Johnson.
Most people realized that Masters and Johnson pioneered research.
The responses to sexual stimulation are recorded.
The Kinsey studies shed light on a topic that had received little research attention before.
Kinsey appreciated collecting data as a way of answering a research question.
The A person's psychological experience of wanting to engage in sexual activity was not revealed in his surveys.
In 1957, the researcher William Masters and his assistant, Virginia Johnson, began conducting laboratory studies to observe and record people's sexual behavior.
The sexual response pattern consists of four phases.
The phases are different for males and females.
A female does not experience a period.
People experience feelings of sexual arousal when blood flows to the male and female genitals.
The penis, which is a structure that extends into the pelvis, becomes erect for males.
The vagina enlarges and the nipples become erect for females.
The excitement phase is not associated with feelings of arousal.
You will soon learn that other aspects of the context affect arousal, and this is especially true for women, for whom emotional closeness and intimacy are often related to arousal.
The frenzied phase of sexual activity is what many people call this stage.
Suppressions are lifted and passion takes control.
This stage consists of sudden increases in breathing and heart rate, rhythmic contraction of the vagina for females, and ejaculation of semen for males.
For healthy males, orgasm almost always occurs.
Females can experience orgasm from stimulation of the external area of the clitoris, parts of the clitoris located inside the pelvis, or from a dime-sized area.
Regardless of the type of orgasm experienced, females and males report nearly identical pleasurable sensations, which they describe as being like waves of electricity, the release of tension like an explosion, and so on.
The person may return to a normal state of arousal after an orgasm.
The pattern is different between males and females.
Her arousal decreases to a normal level in the hypothalamus.
Because females don't have behavior that affects production a refractory period, they may have multiple orgasms with no resolution phases between them.
The internal motivation for people to engage in sexual relations is created by this desire.