Material benefits and improvements were the focus of their programs.
The movement for independence was caused by unrest.
A group of progressive thinkers and bureaucrats were created by Portugal's foreign influences and ideas.
Changing European economic and demographic realities resulted in much of the change that came in both empires.
The American colonies were given a new New World Spanish colony by the people living in the products.
The Spanish and Portuguese empires revived, but with some long-term results that were born in Spain.
Whites born in the New World dominated local Latin American economies and ranked just The Shifting Balance of Politics and Trade beneath peninsulares.
The problem in Spain gos, a mee-, del paees, clubs itself.
The associations dedicated to Spain were weakened due to foreign wars, debt, declining population, and internal revolts, as well as the rising strength of England and Spanish Holland, which made them natural rivals of Catholic Spain.
During the 16th century, the tury, French, Dutch, and English ship captains combined trade with raiding in order to create the material Spanish empire.
They are owing allegiance to reform.
The English took Jamaica in 1654 and the French took control of western Hispaniola in 1697, and other islands fell to the English, French, and Dutch.
Slave and plantation colonies were created in many of the islands as a result of sugar production.
The English settlement of eastern North America, as well as the French occupation of Canada and the Mississippi valley, were part of a general process of colonization.
Sugar, coffee, tobacco, and cotton were created on islands in the Caribbean and in South America.
Spain's territorial monopoly was challenged.
The failure of the Spanish mercantile and political system was less obvious than the loss of territories.
The annual fleets became irregular.
Most goods shipped to the West Indies and even the ships that carried them were non-Spanish in origin because of the decline in silver payments from America.
The colonies became self-sufficient in basic commodities, and as central government became weaker, local aristocracy in the colonies exercised increasing control over the economy and government of their regions, often at the expense of the Native American and lower-class populations.
There was a lot of corruption in the government.
The empire seemed to be falling apart.
Spain was able to keep its American possessions for another century.
With Spain in decline, the West Indies still seemed to be an attractive prize for other powers, and the chance to gain them was not long in coming.
The Spanish king, Charles II, died without an heir in 1701.
The prize of the Spanish monarchy and its American colonies was supported by other European nations.
Spain's commercial monopoly was being broken by more than just english and French.
The Bourbon dynasty in Spain launched a series of reforms to strengthen the state and economy.
The strong centralized government of Spain ruled from 1759 to 1788 and instituted economic, administrative, and military reforms.
The goal of the rulers and their ministers was to revive Spain within the framework of its traditional society.
They wanted to make government more effective, more military reforms in Spain, and better able to direct the economy.
Some groups or institutions opposed the empire.
The Jesuit order, with its special allegiance to Rome, its rumored wealth, and its missions in the New World, was a prime target.
The Jesuits were kicked out of Spain and its empire in 1767, as they were from the Portuguese empire in 1759.
The interests of the church and nobility were not attacked as long as they did not conflict with the authority of the crown.
The reforms were about material improvements and a more powerful state.
French bureaucratic models were introduced.
The system of taxation was changed.
New ships were built after the navy was reformed.
In 1778 new ports were opened in Spain and America for the West Indies trade after the convoy fleet system was abandoned.
The Bourbons started a reform program in the West Indies.
The new viceroyalties were created to provide better administration and defense for the growing populations of these regions.
The investigators were sent to the Indies.
The Spanish minister of the West Indies revealed the worst abuses of corruption, which included the local magistrates and the Creole aristocracy.
The move to eliminate reform and eliminate Creoles from the upper bureaucracy of the colonies was made by Galvez.
There were new offices created.
The reforms made government more effective and improved tax collection, but they also disrupted the power of the bureaucrats and miners as their political power declined.