The critical information about the section that we covered in the introduction should be reviewed before you begin to prepare for the multiple-choice questions.
To do well on this part of the AP Human geography exam, you need to know your human geography and how to answer multiple-choice AP questions.
If you don't know how to take the test, you won't get the credit you deserve.
Josh is getting good grades in high school, but then gets a low score on the AP exam because he's not ready for the types of questions.
Jessica is a student who is not very comfortable with all the topics in the AP Human Geography course.
She gets a 4 on the exam because she knows how to answer multiple choice questions effectively.
You need a plan.
You need to get inside the head of the people testing you.
In this section, we will show you how the College Board and their test- authors put you under pressure, and how they write questions to trick you into choosing the wrong answer.
We will give you several strategies to crack the multiple-choice section along the way.
In this section, we will teach you how to use Process of Elimination and discuss the rules of effective multiple-choice test-taking.
These strategies will improve your AP multiple-choice test taking skills.
Accuracy is the real goal.
You have limited time.
Four out of five choices are wrong.
Guessing raises your score and saves you time.
Your enemy is wasted time.
A lot of questions in 60 minutes.
It's about one minute per question.
Guess and Go or Don't.
The political boundaries of Africa were divided by European colonial powers in the late 1800s.
Africa was colonized by Europeans in the last part of the world.
The last part of the world to be independent.
It was part of American history.
Both Camp David and Potsdam were about World War II.
Berlin is in Germany and Versailles is in France.
Either D or E. The home of Louis XV was Versailles.
Today is a museum.
It doesn't sound right.
The central business district is found in the model.
While Jessica goes on to the next question, Josh continues to deliberate between D and E. Jessica took a smart guess and then moved on after doing all she could to consider the remaining options.
Josh was stuck trying to make a decision between the two remaining options, even though he did all he could.
Josh will lag behind Jessica more and more as the test goes on, not because he knows less human geography, but because he is less willing to take that guess and move onward, and save time.
If you want to do well on the AP Human Geography Exam, you need to do what you can, be willing to take your best guess, and then move on to the next question.
This doesn't mean that speeding through the test is your goal.
It's the wrong goal to focus on finishing the section.
If you answer the questions correctly, you will earn a solid raw score.
You might not even try some of the questions.
If you can't eliminate one answer choice, then you're better off randomly guessing.
You know to skip bubbling in an answer for that question.
If you have time after you answer all the ones that are easier for you, you can take another look at those questions.
If you want to get a good score on the test, you have to be careful.
If you have done all you can to solve the question, don't waste time with it.
As you practice for the exam, find the pace at which you can work efficiently and effectively without sacrificing accuracy.
You can use the full-length practice tests in this book to determine your optimal pace after you study your geography notes, textbook, and the content-review chapters of this book.
You can get 48 or more raw score points if that's the case, and you can get a 4 or above depending on your free responses.
You can still get 48 raw score points if you are accurate.
Being accurate is more important than finishing.
Remember that four of the five answer choices are incorrect, every time you read a multiple-choice question.
If any answer choices remain, then deal with them.
Most questions will allow you to eliminate two or three answer choices relatively quickly.
There are two choices to consider.
Don't forget about the guessing reward.
Throughout the rest of the chapter, we'll talk about POE.
You will be on your way to showing what you know on the multiple choice part of the test if you remember that all the answer choices are wrong until proven right.
Multiple-choice question strategy can be changed by the Process of Elimination.
Pick a "Letter of the Day" and move on if you can't eliminate any answers.
You have nothing to lose by guessing because your score is based on the number of questions you answer correctly.
The multiple-choice section is difficult if not impossible for most students to finish on time.
Your goal is to get at least 40 correct answers.
If you took that test at school, you would get a score of 66 percent and most likely have a "D" next to your name.
That's not how the AP exam works.
You can earn 4 or 5 if you do well on the free-response section.
Since this test does not have a guessing penalty, you should always guess on questions you don't know.
Pick a letter of the day and bubble it in on questions where you can't eliminate answer choices.
The multiple-choice question can be inverted.
Four out of five answers are correct when you see a question with the word "EXCEPT" or "Not" in it.
It's your job to find the wrong one.
The two things being compared have a lot in common.
Put a check mark next to each answer that is true or not an exception in the question booklet.
Process of Elimination can be used to find the one that doesn't fit.
We'll show you how to solve multiple-choice questions step-by-step.
The best way to learn about this process is to take the AP Human geography exam.
You need to understand what the question is asking.
The question should be rephrased so that it is clear to you.
Before you read the answer choices, you need to know what the historical period is, who is involved and where, and what the question is asking.
Before you read the answer choices, answer these questions in your mind or in the question booklet.
Take a moment to call up the economic geography that you know after you've answered the questions.
It should be easy to find the correct answer if you know the topic.
Process of Elimination can be used to get rid of the wrong answer choices.
Even if you don't know the history of the European Union, you can still use a strategy to eliminate wrong answer choices.
Look for what makes the answer wrong when you read it.
If you know the choices are wrong, leave those that you are unsure about or those you think may be correct.
What do you know about the European Union?
NATO has a military-strategic purpose, but it is mainly an organization based on economic policy.
Let's take a look at the answer choices.
Look at (C).
None of the groups' names imply anything about the military.
Many of the countries that we're talking about, but not all, were members of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization.
NATO and the EU are not the same thing.
You should scratch off (D).
You might not know about (A), (B), or (E).
Major functions of the European Union are listed here.
Which of these was the purpose of these organizations?
The Euro was introduced in the year 2000.
You should feel confident scratching off.
Take a guess.
Take a guess once you've narrowed down the choices.
The guessing reward benefits students who are willing to take smart guesses.
If you use Process of Elimination to get rid of choices that you know are wrong, and then take a smart guess from among the remaining choices, you can score a personal best on this test.
If you can't guess the answer to our sample question after using POE, just pick one.
Let's look at it.
Europeans enjoy open-border policies because they no longer have to stop at the border for customs or immigration officers.
This doesn't seem to be linked to larger markets.
Coal and steel are traded between countries.
(A) is not likely to be the answer, and (E) is the correct answer.
The Common Market and the European Coal and Steel Community are free-trade zones that removed tariffs on goods moving across international borders.
European steel and other products were cheaper on international markets because of this reduced production costs.
European Steel companies were trying to create a comparative advantage.
It's possible to make a smart guess if you know just some of the information.
This doesn't mean that you shouldn't learn a lot about supranational organizations.
The easier it will be to eliminate wrong answer choices and zero in on the correct answer, the more you know.
The steps and POE will help you get the right answer quickly by making the most of the information you know.
Let's work on another AP Human Geography multiple-choice question.
This isn't a question that requires a political or economic context.
The question is about a stat that is calculated every year.
There is nothing in the question that tells us what we are dealing with.
A population stat that measures growth.
You know that doubling time and total life expectancy are statistics that are measured over a long period of time.
The replacement rate is 2.1.
Cross off (B).
You don't know how the TFR is calculated, so leave.
You have left A and C. Go or reason it out a little more.
Fertility has something to do with births, but not deaths.
And (C) is your answer.
It's your turn now.
The following multiple-choice question can be solved using the four steps below.
The first step is to rephrase the question.
Take a moment to identify the word theocracy.
Try to think of a country like Saudi Arabia that is a theocracy.
These questions are meant to narrow down and eliminate choices.
Questions about present conditions are generally asked.
The two are the same, we're looking for an entire country.
We're looking for a country ruled by religion.
China can be crossed off immediately as a formal religion rarely exists under Communism.
Greece may be a possibility.
The Greeks have a long tradition of democracy.
Cross off this answer.
It is also a possibility.
The head of the Church of England is the monarch of Great Britain.
Remember the word best in the question when you look at the other answers to see if there is a better one.
Iran is a strong possibility.
Muslim clerics have ruled the country since the fall of the Shah.
Turkey is a possible choice.
Turkey is applying to join the European Union because it is mostly Muslim.
Europeans did not want a theocracy like the one in Saudi Arabia.
Turkey shouldn't be a theocracy.
You have to guess between Great Britain and Iran.
Queen Elizabeth II is the head of the Church of England.
People in Britain seem to have a lot of religious freedom.
There is not much religious freedom in Iran.
Iran is the best answer.
There are a number of questions on the multiple-choice section that require you to identify a region, read a map, or analyze a graph or table of data.
You need to be able to identify the places and examples that you have learned in class to answer the map questions.
One way to test yourself is to get blank maps and fill in the locations of regions, migration patterns, and example countries and cities as you study your class notes.
There are no map questions on the AP Human Geography Exam that will ask you to identify a point.
You wouldn't be asked to name the capital of the country.
These questions are very easy to answer.
Most places are on the map as part of the course.
You are expected to answer questions about geographic principles and theories.
If you want to identify examples of the concepts you have learned, you'll need background knowledge and map practice.
Map questions are similar to simple definition questions.
Either you know where it is or not.
When you don't have the concrete knowledge, there are ways to eliminate some of the possible answers and increase your chances of guessing correctly.
We can work through a map question together.
The map is of contemporary Europe.
southern Belgium and parts of Switzerland are included in the two areas.
Europe is not included in the two areas.
Let's go through the answers one by one, with little to go on from the printed question.
There are areas in the western area that are Catholic.
Do you know if there are other Catholic-dominated areas in Europe?
Ireland is not shaded and should stick out.
A is probably not the answer.
Romance languages include Portuguese, Spanish, French, Italian, and (as you might guess from the name) Romania.
We should go through the rest to make sure it's the best answer.
The Euro is not accepted in Great Britain.
It is the only currency in many countries.
It's not likely.
In the peripheral regions of Europe, services and manufacturing dominate economic productivity.
It's like choice and choice and choice and choice and choice and choice and choice and choice and choice and choice and choice and choice and choice and choice and choice and choice and choice and choice and choice and choice and choice and choice and choice and choice and choice and choice and choice and There are monarchies outside of the shaded area.
In France and Italy, the monarchy has been gone for a long time.
The only answer that fits is (B).
The details are here.
The southern half of Belgium is French speaking.
French and Italian are two of the four regional languages within Switzerland.
Reading graphs or tables is a common type of question.
Quantitative data is what geographers refer to as "quantitative" data and you are expected to be able to read and analyze it in the AP Human Geography course.
Number crunching is involved in a lot of geographical analysis work.
Being able to read the results of analysis is a necessary skill.
The population and economic geography sections of the course draw most of the numerical data in the exam.
Knowing what is a high, low, and normal or stable rate will be discussed in Part V of this book.
You can ask about the relationship between the two types of data with a graph.
A population pyramid shows the total population by gender and age cohort, with the bottom bar showing the number of males and females of the same age group.
A table has rows and columns.
You will be asked questions about what you see in the data.
It is likely that you will have to read the entire table to get the full story of the question.
The actual numbers may be irrelevant if you know the principle behind the question.
One example of being in a specific category and another example of being in a separate category will need to be identified.
Country Z is a Third-World agricultural-based economy, while Country Y is a First-World nation in Europe.
The numbers are indicative of places.
Highly developed nations with service-based economies and good social services have a negative RNI.
Third-World regions with high population growth and low life expectancy are expected to have a high RNI.
The basic skills of numerical analysis are a necessity for the AP Human geography exam.
Basic rules are required to solve these tables.
The theories and principles behind the data determine the rules.
You will know the rules if you know the theories and principles.
The principles we know to answer the puzzle can be applied to a graph question.
Let's practice those steps again.
This isn't a question that needs a political or historical context.
The economic context of "Third-World" and "agricultural" is important.
The question is not about the new industrialized countries.
Think about Third-World countries where agriculture is the primary source of economic production.
We expect fertility in poor countries to be high, just as it is in wealthier countries.
The curved trend line on the graph shows TFRs that are too low, as they represent GNP per capita at very high levels of production in manufacturing and service-based economies.
On the trend line, a TFR of 2.4 would be around $6,000 to $8,000 per year, which is what you would find in many NICs.
To measure GNP per capita, use the straight edge of your pencil to measure it.
You're left with (D) and (E).
Even though the trend line could reach that level, 6.0 does not appear on the graph.
The economic productivity of agriculture-based economies is representative of the economic productivity of choice, which is around $1,000 in GNP per capita.
Some questions are not going to be factual, such as the history of European free-trade or theocracy in Iran.
You will have to interpret theories that you have learned in the course.
You have to understand the question when it comes up.
The example below shows how critical this step is.
He predicted that his inventions would allow for a larger population.
You should ask yourself what you know about the two bodies of theory.
Malthus warns against overpopulation and the Green Revolution feeds more people.
The two theories are very different.
The theory question still needs this step.
Ask yourself what you know about each theory.
Malthus was in the early 1800s.
The Green Revolution took place in the 20th century.
Malthus was worried that the world wouldn't be able to feed itself.
Farmers in the Third World were helped by the Green Revolution.
Malthus used mathematics to model population growth.
Large increases in global farm production were made possible by the Green Revolution.
The Green Revolution is explained in Chapter 7.
Some of the multiple-choice answers can be eliminated from your answers in Step 2.
The choices should be obvious eliminations based on what you know about the theories.
You have (A) and (D).
The Green Revolution and Malthus's theory are listed in chronological order.
Return to your reformulation of the question.
Malthus warned about the dangers of overpopulation.
He predicted doom and gloom, not new farming technologies.
The best answer is (A).
The last example was also a comparison question.
You can examine the relationships between concepts with comparison questions.
There are two answers to each of the when, who, where, and what questions in the comparison question.
Two theories are being compared.
Urban models try to generalize the average city in a region.
The locations should be the same in most cities.
Ask yourself what you know about each region and theory.
The Latin American city model is contemporary and updated, while the concentric zones are from the 1920s.
They have been there for a while in the United States and Canada.
Many recent migrants from the rural areas are in Latin America.
The model doesn't say where the poor live.
Many poor people in the United States and Canada live in the inner city.
There are peripheral settlements in the Latin American city model.
Squatters can't afford to buy land.
We can eliminate (A), (B), and (C).
The poor aren't in the Zone of Maturity in the Latin American city model.
The first part of the answer is wrong and the second part is wrong.
You are left with (D) and (E).
You may think that the poor in the US and Canada could be in the central business district, but you may not know what in situ accretion means.
The poor and inner city seem to fit better with choice.
Even though (D) appears to be a parallel answer, we'll go with (E).
In situ accretion is a less affluent area where homes and businesses are in a constant state of construction and renovation.
You had to see two graphical models.
You need to be able to visualize the models in your head if you want to pass the AP Human Geography Exam.
We advise you to pay attention to the Know the Models sections of the book.
It was a lot of practice.
After you do some problems on your own, score yourself, review, and learn about the free-response questions, you can move on to the next chapter.
You can use what you have learned on the 10 questions if you want to crack the multiple-choice section.
You can use a watch to know how long it will take to answer the questions.
There are answers and explanations to the quiz.
We will show you how to adjust your pacing and strategy after the explanations.
The economic geography section of the course has a definition question.
Singapore is a major port where manufactured goods are shipped in from the rest of Asia and then redistributed in global retail networks to consumers around the world.
The economic geography section of the course gave the other answers.
200 nautical miles off the coast of a country is where the EEZs are.
The countries control the economic resources of the sea or ocean.
Break-in-bulk points are places where goods are off-load from one form of transportation onto another form of transportation, and then reassembled into smaller units to be distributed.
Natural resources can be connected to lines of transportation.
Commodity chains are the production links from resources to suppliers.
Most of the GDP in the United States and Great Britain is derived from services.
The percent of GDP gained from manufacturing in the United States and the United Kingdom has fallen since the 1960s.
Finance, insurance, and real estate are some of the services that create wealth and employment in these countries.
GDP is the total volume of economic production.
Right away, use POE to eliminate agriculture.
Real estate and construction are too narrow of economic sectors to be considered a majority of the GDP.
Manufacturing and services are your two choices.
Knowing that manufacturing is in decline in the United States and Britain would give you the perfect answer.
The dollar value of services compared to manufacturing is another thing to think about.
Think about buying a new car.
The sticker price could be more than $15,000.
When you use a financial service to get a loan, you will end up paying more in interest.
Imagine paying $100,000 for a dump truck.
The insurance policy for all of a company's dump trucks combined with the value of the construction contracts where these trucks will be used will be in the millions of dollars.
He specialized in spatial analysis.
One of the few "laws" in geographic science is his idea about relationships in geographic space.
Environmental determinism is the scientific ideology that the physical world shapes culture and society.
As major subfields in geography, (B) and (C) are concepts that are too broad to answer a specific definition question.
Contagious diffusion is a process in which an idea or technology moves across physical space from location to location, in a contiguous pattern, where the idea or technology moves between locations that touch each other on the map.
Similar to the "EXCEPT" questions, four out of five answers are likely to be things that may sound like positive social effects of gentrification.
Pick out the negative one.
Poor residents can't afford to buy a home in their neighborhood because of gentrification because of increased real estate prices.
The answer to a definition question on gentrification is choice.
Choice can be a possibility for those who still own older homes and use the proceeds to buy something else.
The term "construction" distracts you.
People complain about road construction.
Choice is seen as a positive by people who are concerned about historical preservation.
There is a theoretical model question.
You are being asked about the principles behind the geography of the model.
Von Thunen wasn't designing an agricultural landscape.
He was looking at the patterns in the landscape and asking why they were there.
The most labor-intensive activities were dairying, vegetable farming, and woodcutting for lumber and energy.
At the outer edge of the model were activities such as raising grain crops, which required little tending.
Land rents were adjusted based on the intensity of labor and the type of agriculture.
A minority ethnic group is concentrated in a country.
There is a long political border between Russia and the Ukraine.
The concept of the "colony" in political terms went out of use in the 1970s when the last European colonies in Africa gained independence.
A situation in which part of the political state is separated from the main body of the state is called choice exclaves.
Some countries have exclaves.
Alaska can be considered an exclave of the United States.
As they refer to areas where ancient civilizations began, culture hearths can be eliminated.
As special economic zones refer to export processing areas in China, (E) can be eliminated as well.
The resources category has a difficult comparison question.
There are a number of issues with solar electricity.
The sun shines for half a day on average, so there is one practical issue that may escape analytical comparison with other forms of renewable energy.
None of the other answers are true.
The distraction is caused by the fact that you contemplate these wide-ranging possibilities.
San Francisco was inhabited before Europeans arrived and was used as a transportation intersection between two major bodies of water.
The definition-example question buried the term "transport node" in one of the answers.
The "San Francisco" example is needed to answer the question.
The trick is not to pay attention to the concept of relative position.
None of the choices are meaningful in determining the origins of human settlement in this place.
The graph question is here.
You need to be able to see the shape of the pyramids.
The question doesn't give you age cohort or population sizes.
The typical equilateral pyramid shape of Third-World countries can be seen in Country A with its broad base and narrow top.
There are a lot of children being born, but very few old people.
The Third World has high fertility rates.
Country B has a columnar shape similar to First-World countries, where the narrow bottom shows a limited number of children in the total population, and thus low fertility rates and high survival rates.
POE can be used to eliminate A, D, and E. The issue of dependent populations is not clear.
The dependent population in each country could be the same if you added up the young and old people.
The second part of (C) says that country B has almost no dependents.
This can't be true for any country.
This is an example of a map question.
The Basques and the Catalan did not have much of a culture from the French.
Four of the five answers are correct.
Catalonia and Basque are minority groups in Spain, which have their own languages, and have gained limited autonomy in recent decades, though some in their community still yearn for political independence.
You want to answer at least 40 of the 60 questions correctly on Section I of the exam.
You need to get two out of three.
You need to get seven out of ten correct to support the score that you hope to receive after completing the free-response section.
If you get six or fewer questions correct, you can use the rest of the book to solve your problems.
You need to answer the other questions correctly if you want to save time.
You need to review the material from those parts of the course if the questions were mysterious to you.
Determine what kind of geography the question is drawn from.
Determine what kind of question it was (definition, definition-example, comparison, theory, models, maps, graphs, or tables).
If you don't know the definition of an enclave or can't remember a single example, then you need to revisit the section on political geography and make sure you know all the key terms.
There will be a list of key terms at the end of each of the review chapters.
Make sure that you are aware of the terms highlighted in your textbook.
The material in the course is interrelated.
Understanding the links between the subjects is the key to knowing the material well.
Links will be the focus of part V of the book.
You will need to guess from your remaining choices once you eliminated the incorrect answers.
The best time for 10 questions is 9 minutes, 10 seconds.
The ratio is 60 questions to 60 minutes.
If you were to use the 9:10 pace for 10 questions, you would be able to handle any unfinished business at the end of the 60-question exam period.
You will get quicker with more practice if you go through the four-step process.
If you don't know the subject matter of the question, don't spend a lot of time thinking about it.
There is no penalty for skipping.
If you decide between the last two or three answers, you have already eliminated some bad answers.
You should leave a few minutes before the end of the 60-minute period to check the questions that you circled to review.
You should keep an eye on your watch.
There are different types of questions in the multiple choice section of the test, as well as the four-step process.
You can identify the type of question when you are familiar with all of these types.
There can be more than one type of question.
Knowing the question type as you answer will help you reformulate the question when going through step 1 and will make you feel more comfortable and confident as you go through the exam.