31 -- Part 1: Global Recovery and Division Between Superpowers 1945 to the Present
Recovery began worldwide after the defeat of the Axis powers.
An idealized Soviet worker leans fore, pitting the democratic and capitalist countries of the United States forward into the new Soviet age in this example of socialist realism, and its allies, including Japan, against the Marxist Communist Soviet an artistic style that promoted Union and its allies.
The postwar tools for the Soviet state were used despite the growing tensions of the Cold War.
An amazing recovery was witnessed by a battered western Europe.
The United States converted its economies to peacetime production after avoiding war.
By the 1960s, Japan was one of the world's leading economic powers after seven years of Allied occupation.
The Soviet Union wanted to protect itself from future attacks from the west by establishing Communism in eastern Europe.
Domestic political stability and social harmony evaporated in the early 1970s when the global economic boom came to an end.
The end of the Cold War and the collapse of communism in eastern Europe reinforced global integration.
In postcommunist eastern Europe, the result was monumental change.
The nations of western Europe were transformed as they joined the European Union.
In 1945 American and Russian soldiers embraced in the middle of Germany.
The United States and the Soviet Union were at odds.
Europe was divided into West and East by the end of 1947.
As soon as the threat of Nazi Germany disappeared, the Soviet Union and the United States began to argue.
Hostility between the Eastern and Western super powers was the result of military developments, wartime agreements, and long standing political and ideological differences.
The Americans and the British avoided discussing Joseph Stalin's war aims and the shape of the eventual peace settlement, fearing that hard bargaining might encourage Stalin to make a separate peace with Hitler.
By late 1943, decisions about the postwar world could no longer be delayed.
The "Big Three" of Roosevelt, Churchil and Stalin met in Iran in 1943 to affirm their determination to crush Germany.
The Americans and British were going to launch an invasion of France.
The soviet armies would liberate eastern Europe.
The Red Army occupied most of eastern Europe and was within a hundred miles of Berlin when the Big Three met again in 1945.
The Rhine hadn't been crossed into Germany by American-British forces.
At Yalta in southern Russia in 1945, Franklin Roosevelt, Joseph Stalin, and a triumphant Winston Churchill met to plan for peace.
Bitter hostility soon overtook cooperation.
The U.S. involvement in the Vietnam War was not a victory over Japan.
The Soviet Union's position was strong while America's was weak.
The compromise broke down immediately.
Differences over eastern Europe were avoided by the Ratification of the Treaty of Lisbon.
The compromising Roosevelt had died and was replaced by the more assertive Harry Truman, who now demanded free elec tions throughout eastern Europe.
Stalin believed that a buffer zone of Com munist states was crucial to the Soviet Union's security.
The United States had no way of knowing what was happening in eastern Europe in the middle of the 20th century.
Stalin would have his way.
Truman cut off aid to the Soviet Union.
He said in October that the United States would not recognize any government that was against the will of its people.
In Vietnam, America's failure to support Third World liberation movements would have tragic consequences.
In March 1946 former British prime minister Churchil told an American audience that Europe had been divided into two warring camps.
France's and Italy's large, organized Communist Parties attacked their own governments with strikes and violent criticism.
Iran, Turkey, and Greece were put under pressure by the Soviet Union, as well as a civil war in China.
Many Americans believed that Stalin was going to export communism throughout Europe and the world.
In 1947, Truman told Congress he believed the Red Army was occupied.
To provide economic aid to Europe.
The Marshall Plan was refused by Stalin because he had to help rebuild eastern Europe.
The Soviet zone of Ger many was blocked off by Stalin on July 24, 1948.
Europe was divided by an iron curtain during the Cold War.
The Communist countries of eastern Europe did not participate in the plan.
The Organization, an anti-Soviet military united in the Warsaw Pact, was tightened by the North Atlantic Treaty.