joliekendall | Student
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Cell Structure Cell Structure Organelles and Their Functions Organelles: means tiny organs; they are small structures that perform specific jobs for the cell. Function Of The Cell Membrane - A protectIe membrane that surrounds the cell. - Acts as a barrier between the inside of the cell and its environment. - Controls the flow of materials (such as water, oxygen, food particles, and waste) into and out of the cell. Function Of The Cytoplasm - A gelatin-like material that fills the inside of the cell. - Where organelles are found. - Where chemical reactions happen to help the cell function. - Has a structural framework of tiny hollow tubes, called the cytoskeleton, to maintain the cell’s shape . Function Of The Nucleus - Controls the cell's activities. - Contains cell’s DNA. - “Brain” or “Control Center” of the cell. Function Of The Nuclear Membrane - Separates nucleus from cytoplasm. - Controls what enters and exits the nucleus. Function Of The Nucleolus - Makes ribosomes. Function Of The Mitochondria - Produces energy by breaking down food molecules. - “Powerhouse” of the cell. Function Of The Ribosomes - Make the proteins a cell needs by putting together amino acids. - Some ribosomes float free in the cytoplasm. - Some ribosomes are attached to an organelle called the endoplasmic reticulum. Function Of The Endoplasmic Reticulum - Transports materials throughout the cell. - “Highway system” of the cell. - 2 types: rough endoplasmic reticulum and smooth endoplasmic reticulum. Function Of The Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum - Has ribosomes attached to it. - The ribosomes make proteins and the rough endoplasmic reticulum transports these proteins throughout the cell. Function Of The Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum - Makes lipids (fats) and transports them throughout the cell. - Breaks down toxic materials. Function Of The Golgi Bodies - Stores and packages proteins and lipids from the endoplasmic reticula and ships them to other parts of the cell. - “The “UPS store” of the cell. Organelles Found In Animal Cells Only Function Of The Vacuoles - Can store food, water, or waste materials for the cell. - Animal cells have several small vacuoles. - “Storage Tanks” for the cell. Function Of The Lysosomes - Contains digestIe chemicals to break down food, waste, and old cells. Function Of The Centrioles - Plays role in cell division (making new cells). Organelles Found In Plant Cells Only Function Of The Large Central Vacuole - Stores water for the plant cell. - Helps support the plant cell. - Like a “water tank” for the cell. Function Of The Cell Wall - Surrounds the cell membrane to gIe the plant cell protection and support. - Helps the plant cell keep its shape. - Made of a tough, rigid, fibrous material called cellulose (this is the dietary fiber our intestines need to function properly). Function Of The Chloroplasts - Contains chlorophyll for photosynthesis (food production) in the plant cell. Plant Cell & Animal Cell Differences - Shape: Plant cells are square and animal cells are round. - Cell Wall: Plant cells have a cell wall and animal cells do not. - Chloroplasts: Plant cells have chloroplasts and animal cells do not. - Food: Plant cells can make their own food and animal cells cannot. - Vacuoles: Plant cells have 1 large central vacuole and animal cells have several small vacuoles. - Centrioles: Animal cells have centrioles and plant cells do not. - Lysosomes: Animal cells have lysosomes and plant cells do not.