The families and slaves of the soldiers were included in the units of the army.
Each com- composed of soldiers and their families had a hereditary captain.
New companies and banners were formed.
When new groups were defeated, they were distributed with several banners.
When the rebels captured Beijing, the general who invited the Manchus to enter China was a native of southern Manchuria.
The Manchus want to liberate Beijing.
The Manchus occupied Beijing after the Great Wall gates were opened.
The cultural influence on the rest of Asia was caused by the sheer size of the Qing Empire.
China was once again under alien rule.
The examination system was taken over by most of the political institutions of the Ming Dynasty.
Population growth took off after peace was achieved.
The Chi nese population doubled from 150 mil ion to 300 mil ion between 1700 and 1800.
Global warming that extended the growing season, expanded use of New World crops, and slowing of the spread of new diseases were some of the factors that contributed to population growth in the 18th century.
For more than a century, China was ruled by only three rulers, each of them committed to making the Qing Dynasty a success.
Two emperors had long reigns.
Both the Chinese and the Manchu elites were impressed by the performance of Kangxi.
He was able to speak, read, and write Chinese, and he tried to convince the educated Chinese that the Manchus had a legitimate claim to rule.
He undertook a series of tours of the south, where he held a special exam to select men to make the official history of the Ming Dynasty.
The Yongzheng emperor was a hard working ruler who was interested in the efficiency of the government.
His father had lived so long that he didn't come to the throne until his mid-forties.
The Qianlong emperor had a reign of sixty years.
The ability of the multiethnic empire to hold together depended on the ability to appeal to those who ruled.
In addition to speaking Manchu and Chinese, Qianlong learned to speak in other languages, such as Uighur, Tibetan, and Tangut.
He became enamored with Tibetan Buddhism as much as he was with Chinese Confucianism.
He started a project to translate the Tibetan Buddhist canon into other languages.
To demonstrate to the Chinese scholar-official elite that he was an emperor, Qianlong worked on affairs of state from dawn until early afternoon and then turned to reading, painting, and calligraphy.
He was so devoted to his mother that he would visit her daily and spend so much time with her.
China remained an enormous producer of manufactured goods and led the way in assembly-line production.
Private firms were even larger than the government's textile factories.
Four thousand weavers, twenty thousand spinners, and ten thousand dyers and finishers were given work by a textile firm in Hangzhou.
The porcelain kilns at Jingdezhen employed the division of labor on a large scale and were able to supply porcelain to much of the world.
The treasury became so full that the emperor was able to cancel taxes on several occasions.
The multiethnic empire put together by the Qing Dynasty was larger than any other Chi nese dynasty.
Taiwan was acquired in 1683.
Next, Mon golia was acquired.
Within a few years, Manchu supremacy was accepted in Mongolia, thanks to the leadership of Kangxi.
Cannons and muskets gave the Qing forces military superiority over the Mongols.
Two thousand years of Inner Asian military advantage were ended by the cheap dominance of the Qing.
The garrison of banner soldiers was established in Tibet in the 1720s.
The Russian Empires were close to the expanding Qing Empire.
The borders of Manchuria were defined in 1689 by the Manchu and Russian rulers.
The ming policies and institutions did not do well in Xinjiang.
Europe's feudal age can be compared to Japan's war and political instability in the twelfth century.
The capital of the Kamakura Shogunate was at Kamakura.
The great age of Zen influenced Muromachi culture, which was influenced by the Ashikaga Shogunate.
Civil war broke out over succession to the shogunate in the 16th century.