In some cases, the blood substitute is completely synthetic, and contains chemicals that mimic the oxygen-carrying hemoglobin found in red blood cells.
Scientists are using technology to make replacement red blood cells.
Most medical professionals believe that we are still several years away from being able to produce a synthetic blood supply to meet the needs of society, despite the fact that several biotech companies are currently conducting clinical trials using synthetic blood.
Open and closed circulatory systems are compared.
All animal cells need a constant supply of oxygen and nutrition, and their waste products must be removed.
sponges, hydras, sea anemones, and flatworms lack a circulatory system.
Their body wall is too thin.
The cells are exposed to water and can exchange gases and excrete waste.
The cells that line the stomach are specialized.
No cell is far away from one of the three branches of the stomach.
The respiration and elimination needs of the cells are met by diffusion.
In a hydra, digested material is available to the cells that line the cavity.
Oxygen can be obtained from the watery contents of the cavity by these cells.
The sea star has fluid in its body that distributes oxygen and picks up waste.
The fluid within the body of the pseudocoelomate nematodes and the coelomate echinoderms is used for transportation.
Insulates have a circulatory system that transports oxygen and vitamins to their cells.
There it picks up waste which is then thrown out by the body.
Animals with blood vessels and open spaces have hemolymph.
The first to evolve were open circulatory systems, which are present in simpler and evolutionarily older animals.
In arthropods, the heart pumps hemolymph via vessels into tissue spaces that are sometimes enlarged into saclike sinuses.
The arthropod's heart pumps hemolymph into a aorta which empties into the hemocoel.
The hemolymph is sucked back into the heart when the heart relaxes.
The insect has an open circulatory system.
A hemocoel is a body filled with hemolymph that bathes the internal organs.
The heart pumps hemolymph out through vessels and collects it through openings.
The exchange of gases takes place through the use of air tubes.
The hemolymph of a bug is not colored because it doesn't have any respiratory components.
It has no oxygen.
Oxygen is taken to cells, and carbon dioxide is removed from them, by way of air tubes called tracheae, which are found throughout the body.
Blood can be seen in animals that have a closed circulatory system.
In annelids, such as earthworms, and in some molluscs, such as squid and octopuses, blood is pumped by the heart into a system of blood vessels.