The origins of World War II have not been studied in the same way as the origins of World War I because Hitler's responsibility for World War II was more obvious.
The appeasement of Hitler by France and England has caused a lot of controversy about the origins of World War II.
The diplomatic history of the interwar years cast a long shadow over the rest of the twentieth century.
It is obvious that Hitler is responsible for the Holocaust.
They have cast a long shadow.
France built an alliance system with Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia, and Romania, and separately with Poland, which was designed to surround Germany.
The Rapallo Treaty of 1922 was signed by Germany and the Soviet Russia, the other pariah state of the day.
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A secret, more extensive diplomatic and military cooperation between the two countries was being negotiated according to the investigators of World War II.
A remarkable economic recovery occurred in Germany and nearly all countries during the Locarno era, which lasted from 1924 to 1929.
The collapse of the stock market changed everything.
The opening stages of the collectivization of agriculture and the five-year plan were already happening in the Soviet Union.
The national boundaries established by the Paris Peace Conference remained in place.
Outraged nationalism is a staple of Hitler's oratory.
The public rhetoric of Hitler, the marginal, widely mocked demagogue, was one thing, but the concrete reality of Hitler's foreign policy upon taking office was another.
His first efforts as chancellor were focused on domestic issues.
Hitler presented himself to the world as a man of peace in 1933, but other countries refused to take his proposal seriously.
He withdrew from the League of Nations and the Disarmament Conference because of their refusal.
The Polish Corridor through eastern Germany remained for most Germans the most bitterly resented territorial change of 1919 after Hitler signed a non-aggression pact with Poland in January 1934.
In January 1935, after the overwhelming vote in favor of German rule in the Saar, Hitler announced that he had no further claims on France.
Throughout this period Hitler kept returning to the theme that he, a veteran of trench warfare, knew well the horrors of war and was committed to preventing their recurrence.
After the passing of the Nuremberg Laws, the tone of his foreign policy could be seen as moderate.
Many observers remained unconvinced, and retroactively describing Hitler as rational seems ludicrous, but at the time many allowed themselves to be persuaded that Hitler, once saddled with the responsibilities of power, was in fact moving away from the radical rhetoric of his past and showing many signs of being a responsible statesman.
The Austrian republic is Germany's neighbor to the south east.
There were many obstacles to Hitler's stated intentions.
The Austrian Nazis attempted to stage a putsch after the murder of the ChristianSocial chancellor, Engelbert Dollfuss, in late July 1934.
Hitler was embarrassed by the failure of that putsch.
Things got a bit more embarrassing.
The Christian Socials had good relations with Mussolini.
The establishment of a strong German state on Italy's northern border was a key foreign-policy goal for Italian leaders.
If necessary, Mussolini moved 100,000 Italian troops to the Brenner Pass to protect Christian Social rule.
The project of unifying Germany and Austria was abandoned by Hitler after he repudiated the actions of the Austrian Nazis.
The year 1934 had marked dazzling victories for Hitler in domestic affairs, but he was less successful in foreign policy.
It seems clear that his intentions were spurious and short-term.
In domestic matters, Hitler retreated in ways that were not often remembered in subsequent years.
He decided that the time for major action against the Jews had to be delayed because there was little popular support for the planned boycott.
The subject of an anti-Jewish boycott largely disappeared from Hitler's speeches after the boycott was changed to a symbolic day.
Hitler announced in March 1935 that Germany would rebuild its air force and enlarge its ground forces to 500,000, five times the limit imposed by the Versailles Treaty.
In the future, the three leaders promised that their countries would use military force to resist any further violations of the Versailles Treaty by Germany.
The Stresa Front was not a coalition of liberal-democratic powers but rather one based on national interest, like France's alliance with tsarist Russia before World War I.
The Stresa Front might have been described as realpolitik by French and British leaders, who wanted to oppose a rising Nazi Germany.
Hitler's dictatorship and Germany's rearmament suggested to some observers that an even more threatening evil was emerging in Nazism.
Foreign-policy implica tions had far-reaching internal developments in this period.
In the early Depression years, the French Third Republic was under siege, and frustration with it reached a climax.
Serge Stavisky bribed officials and parliamentarians to cover up his activities and sold worthless bonds to the tune of millions of Francs.
For the antirepublican, antisemitic right in France, Stavisky epitomized all that was wrong with "Marianne", the symbol of the Republic, which was embraced and disgraced by unscrupulous Jews.
In early January 1934, Stavisky was found dead of gunshot wounds, and it was thought that he was finally going to be brought to justice.
The demonstrators said that Stavisky was murdered by the police in order to prevent him from exposing the corruption of high government officials.
Seventeen people were killed and hundreds were wounded when the demonstration turned into a bloody confrontation with the forces of order.