Samuel Slater arrived in America from England in 1789 with a detailed plan for his spinning machine.
Nine children turned out a satisfactory cotton yarn, which was then worked up by the putting- out system, after he contracted with a merchant- manufacturer in Rhode Island to build a mill.
In 1800, America's mil s and factories produced only one sixth of Great Britain's production, and the growth rate remained slow until Thomas Jefferson's embargo in 1807 stimulated the domestic production of cloth.
Hundreds of textile mills in New England, New York, and Penn sylvania produced thread, cloth, and clothing by the year 1816.
By 1860, the output of America's factories would be a third of that of British industry.
After the War of 1812, British textile companies flooded the United States with cheap cotton cloth in order to regain customers who had been shut off by the war.
The American textile industry was almost killed off by such postwar dumping.
The owners of New England mills traveled to Washington, D.C., in order to get a federal tax on imported British cloth.
Their efforts created a culture of lobbying for congressional protection against imported products.
The mill owners didn't admit that import tariffs hurt consumers by making them pay higher prices.
The embargo of 1807 resulted in the establishment of a textile mill.
More than 600 people would eventually be employed by the Union Manufactories.
Competition is the engine of innovation and efficiency in a capitalist economy, even though tariffs help protect American industries from foreign competition.
New England shipping companies opposed higher tariffs because they would reduce the amount of goods carried in their vessels across the Atlantic from Britain and Europe.
Many planters in the south opposed tariffs because of fears that Britain and France would retaliate by imposing tariffs on American cotton and tobacco shipped to their ports.
Congress passed a bill in 1816 that placed a tax on every yard of imported cloth.
The tariffs were a factor industrialization.
American manufacturers were able to dominate the national marketplace because of the tariffs.
The first textile mill in the world was built in Massachusetts in 1813 by a group known as the Boston Associates, which brought together the processes of spinning yarn and weaving cloth under one roof.
A cotton mill was built along the Merrimack River north of Boston in 1822.
It became the model for textile mill towns throughout New England.
The brick- built mil s were located along the rivers.
Young women from farm families were hired by the mill owners.
Women were pre-ferred by the owners because of their skill in operating textile machines.
Massachusetts mill workers were photographed holding shuttles used in operating spinning machines and spinning thread and yarn.
The first proof wage was lower than the men's wage.
The highest wages for women in the world were offered by these jobs.
New England had a surplus of women because so many men migrated west.
A steady stream of single women began flocking to Lowel in the early 1820s.
Mill owners promised to provide the "Lowell girls" with work, prepared meals, comfortable boardinghouses, and educational and cultural opportunities.
The "Lowell idea" worked initially.
The girls lived in dormitories staffed by house mothers who enforced curfews and church attendance.
They were paid more than other people.
First proof 31p0 x 20p6 groups publish a literary magazine.
There were two mil s and two factories in Lowel by 1840.
Charles Dickens was impressed by the model of industrial development.
The once rural vil age became a grimy trial city.
Mill owners produced too much cloth, which depressed prices.
They cut wages and sped up the pace of work to maintain their profits.
A worker said, "We go in at five o'clock in the morning; at seven we come out to breakfast; at half- past seven we return to our work, and stay until twelve."
About a sixth of the native- born women mill workers went on strike in 1834 to protest their working and living conditions.
The striking women were labeled "ungrateful" and "unfeminine" by the mill owners.
Two years later, the workers walked out again in protest of the owners raising rents in the company- owned boarding houses.
They rarely complained about their jobs.
40 percent of the mill workers were Irish by 1850.
In the Carolinas and Georgia, there were a few mil s, but they struggled because whites resisted factory work and planters refused to allow slaves to leave the fields.
The planters were rich because of agricultural slavery.
The expansion of cities and mill vil ages was driven by the rapid growth of commerce and industry.
In 1820, Lowel's population was 200.
Smoke, noise, and stench filled the air as other factory centers sprouted up across New England.
In addition, the profusion of dams-- built to harness water to turn the mill wheels-- flooded pastures, decimated fish populations, and spawned rapid urban growth.
Farmers near the Massachusetts textile factories tried to destroy a massive dam in New Hampshire in the 19th century, but their axes and crowbars caused little damage.
The process of industrialization could not be stopped.
The textile mill system was transforming lives and property.
The number of Americans engaged in manufacturing increased by 800 percent between 1820 and 1840.
The United States was quickly becoming a global industrial power.
The proportion of urban to rural people grew from 3 percent to 16 percent between 1790 and 1860.
The Atlantic seaports of New York City, Philadelphia, Baltimore, and Boston were the largest cities because of their strategic locations.
New York's economy and industry grew quickly in the early 19th century.
New York grew faster than its competitors.
New York was the first city to surpass 1 million in population because of its superior harbor and access to commerce along the Erie Canal and the Atlantic Ocean.
Americans had little time to amuse themselves during the colonial era.
Adults worked from dawn to dusk six days a week.
In rural areas, free time was often spent in communal activities, such as barn raisings, shoot ing matches, and footraces, while coastal residents sailed and fished.
People in cities went to dances, went on sleigh rides, and played games such as billiards, cards, and chess.
By the early nineteenth century, an increasingly urban soci ety enjoyed more diverse forms of recreation.
New forms of leisure and entertainment were sought by laborers and shopkeepers.
The first half of the 19th century saw a lot of social drinking.
The secretary of war estimated that three quarters of the nation's laborers drank at least four ounces of hard liquor daily.
The centers of recre ation and leisure were taverns and social clubs.
Blood sports were popular among the working poor.
cockfighting and dogfighting attracted a lot of money, but prizefight ing became popular with all social classes.
Irish or English immigrants who fought with bare knuckles were the early contestants.
A match ended when the contestant couldn't continue.
A fight in 1842 ended when the fighter died in his corner.
Several cities banned boxing after the deaths, only to see it reappear as an under ground activity.
Theaters were the most popular form of indoor entertainment.
Shakespeare's tragedies, "blood and thunder" melodramas, comedies, and minstrel shows were all popular with people from all walks of life.
Blood sports were a popular urban entertainment for men of all social classes.
The prevailing "cult of domes ticity" kept "respectable" women at home.
The audience cheered the heroes and hissed at the vil ains.
Spectators threw curses, nuts, eggs, fruit, shoes, and chairs if an actor did not meet expectations.
Blackface minstrel shows, featuring white performers made up as blacks, were the first uniquely American form of mass entertainment.
"Minstrelsy," which was based on African American folklore, featured banjo and fiddle music, "shuffle" dances, and lowbrow humor.
Between the 1830s and the 1870s, minstrel shows were popular among northern working class ethnic groups and southern whites.
Stephen Foster wrote the most popular songs.
It became a national favorite.
Foster responded with equally well- received tunes such as "Old Folks at Home", "Massa's in de Cold, Cold Ground" and "My Old Kentucky Home."
The sheet- music cover was printed in the 19th century.
Minstrel shows were popular while reinforcing stereotypes.
The United States was still a nation of immigrants.
Travel to America was restricted at the start of the 19th century because of warfare in Europe.
When Napoleon was defeated and forced into exile, new U.S. territories and states in the West gave immigrants from Europe special incentives such as voting rights after only six months of residency.
America offered jobs, higher wages, lower taxes, cheap and fertile land, no entrenched aristocracy, and voting rights.
The global economic slump accelerated the pace of immi gration.
American employers aggressively recruited foreigners because they were willing to work for lower wages than native- born Americans.
The years from 1845 to 1854 had the greatest proportional influx of immigrants in U.S. history.
Ireland and Germany were home to the largest number of immigrants between 1840 and 1860.
Ireland sent more of its people to America than any other nation.
Irish people fled their home land in the mid- nineteenth century due to a lengthy agricultural crisis.
Irish farmers depended on the potato harvest to survive.
The Irish Potato Famine was caused by a fungus that destroyed the potato crop.
Ireland's population was only 8 million and more than a million people died.
90 percent of the people who traveled to Canada and the United States were Catholics.
They knew that America had plenty to eat and plenty of jobs paying twice as much as they did in Ireland.
The Irish made up more than half of Boston and New York City's population by the 1850s.
Irish neighborhoods were plagued by crime, diseases, prostitution, and alcoholism, and most of them were crowded into filthy tenement apartment houses.
There were newspapers and magazines that were anti-Catholic and anti-Irish.
Thousands of Irish immigrants are the most corrupt, debased, and ignorant race in America, according to a New England magazine.
Irishmen were depicted as apes.
The anti-Catholic/ anti-Irish crusade was led by Samuel F. B. Morse, an artist who invented the telegraph.
He claimed that the Pope in Rome was sending Irish immigrants to America to take over the nation.
Progressives like Mann, who fought for public schools across the nation, embraced nativism.
The Irish took on the most dangerous jobs.
Water, steam, horse- power, and Irish power are some of the things that work at the fabric of the Republic.
Irish men who built the canals and railroads and Irish women who worked in the textile industry were the majority of the population.
One Irishman who was hired to dig under houses groaned that he worked like a slave for the Americans.
Irishmen were often hired to do hazardous work in the South.
A southern rice planter told a northern visitor that he hired groups of Irishmen to drain flooded areas.
It's dangerous work and a negro's life is too valuable to be risked.
Irish immigrants were caricatured as filthy, bad, and heavy drinkers by nativists.
Irish Americans could be mean to other groups, such as free African Americans who competed with them for low- wage, unskilled jobs.
The Irish were viewed with contempt by many African Americans.
Irish immigrants used to work as dockworkers and deliverymen, jobs that had been held by African Americans.
Some Irish immigrants did great things in America.
Alexander T. Stewart arrived in New York twenty years ago and became the owner of the nation's largest department store.
The Cudahy Packing Company was founded by Michael Cudahy at the age of fourteen and he developed a process for curing meats.
Irish dancers and playwrights dominated the stage as Victor Herbert emerged as one of America's most revered composers.
By the start of the Civil War, Irish immigrants had become the most important ethnic group supporting the Dem ocratic party, and the Roman Catholic Church was the nation's largest denominations.
Irish Americans and Protestants were attracted to the same passion for Catholicism.
The number of German and Irish immigrants was almost the same.
The Germans included a large number of skilled craftsmen and well- educated professional people who were refugees from the failed German revolution of 1848.
The Germans had a variety of religious preferences.
Most were Protestants, a third were Roman Catholics, and a significant number were Jews.
Many of their native traditions were maintained when German immigrants established their own communities.
Germans often settled in rural areas.
Independent farmers, skilled workers, and shopkeepers were some of the people who were able to establish themselves.
They migrated in families and groups.
The clan nish quality helped sustain elements of their language and culture.
More of them went back to their native country.
14 percent went back to their homeland, compared to 9 percent of the Irish.
The first half of the 19th century saw large numbers of Immi grants from Great Britain and Canada.
Professionals, independent farmers, and skilled workers were included.
There were two large groups of immi grants.
The cold climate and dense forests of the Minnesota Territory reminded Norwegians and Swedes of home.
The Emergence of a Market Economy where trains took them upriver to Buffalo, then west along the Erie Canal, and finally to the prairies of the upper Mississippi Valley.
About 400 place names in Minnesota are of Nordic origin.
Thousands of Chinese immigrants were attracted to California by the rapid development of the state.
The Chinese were hired to build the transcontinental railroads, while others excavated the irrigation canals that enabled an agricultural revolution in the California river valleys.
The Chinese made more in China than they did in America.
During recessions, the hostility of whites forced them from many jobs.
Laundrymen in China were not included from the mines and farms.
The Chinese were ineligible for citizenship because of a 1790 federal law that limited the privilege to whites.
A growing number of people who were born in the United States wanted to restrict or stop immigration.
Prot estants were angered by the flood of Irish and German Catholics.
The arrival of German and Irish Catholic immigrants in the 1840s made Catholicism a national movement.
The Native American party was formed in New York in the 19th century.
In 1845, the Massachusetts philosopher- poet was not a fan of the new movement.
The dog is in the manger.
He said that the strongest nations in history were formed by many different peoples and cultures.
As the number of immigrants increased, nativism grew stronger.
The Order of the Star- Spangled Banner was founded as a secret society in New York City in 1849.
The American party grew into a powerful political group in the early 1850s.
The American party became a national organization.
Members will not vote for foreign- born or Catholic candidates.
The Catholic Church is said to be manipulating American religious and political life through Irish immigration.
When the number of immigrants was five times as large as it had been during the 1840s, the Know- Nothings appeared to be on the verge of major party status.
In 1854, they swept the Massachusetts legislature, winning all but two seats in the lower house, and in the fall of 1854, they elected 43 congressmen across the nation.
The Know- Nothings focused on the political clout of newcomers.
They wanted immigrants and Roman Catholics to be excluded from public office and the waiting period for citizenship to be extended.
The party was not strong enough to pass such legislation.