ChAPTER 24 -- Part 4: Africa and the Africans in the Age of
The slave trade was profitable enough to keep merchants in it, and it contributed to the expanding economy of western Europe.
Slaves or free in the Atlantic world were not unaffected by it.
It was the main way in which Africa was linked to the world.
Europeans in the age of the slave trade sometimes justified the enslavement of Africans by pointing out that slavery already existed in west Africa.
Slavery in Africa, the Muslim trans-Sahara and Red Sea trades, and ancient forms of bondage were all long-term effects of the Atlantic.
African societies had developed many forms of servitude, which ranged from peasant status to something much more like chattel slavery in which people were considered property with a soul.
The control of slaves was one of the few ways in which individuals could increase their wealth and status in African societies, because all land was owned by the state.
Slaves were used to work as administrators, concubines, soldiers, and field workers.
There were whole villages of enslaved dependants who were required to pay tribute to the ruler in some cases.
Slaves were used to supply caravans for the Muslim traders who linked the forest region to the savanna.
These forms of servitude were an extension of the kinship and lineage systems.
They were exploitive economic and social relations that allowed the nobles, senior lineages, and rulers to exercise their power in other African societies.
The Atlantic trade opened up new opportunities for expansion of slavery in the societies of west Africa and the Kongo kingdom in central Africa.
Despite great variation in African societies and the fact that slaves sometimes attained positions of command and trust, most of them were denied choice about their lives and actions.
They were often considered aliens because they were placed in dependent or inferior positions.
The enslavement of women was a feature of African slavery.
Although slaves were used in many ways in African societies, domestic slavery and the extension of lineages through the addition of female members remained important in many places.
The excess of women led to polygyny and the creation of large harems, and the position of women was lowered in some societies, according to some historians.
Islamic concepts of slavery were introduced in the Sudanic states of the savanna.
Slavery was seen as a legitimate fate for nonbelievers but not for Muslims.
Many of the Sudanic states enslaved both pagan and Muslim captives despite the complaints of legal scholars.
Slave communities produced surpluses for the rulers and nobles of Songhay, Gao, and other states.
Slaves were used as caravan workers in the Sahara.
Slavery was a common form of labor control in Africa.
The existence of slavery in Africa and the trade in people who are owed money by Europeans help the commerce in slaves quickly.
The rulers of certain African states were eager to acquire more slaves for themselves and to give them to the Europeans in exchange for aid and commodities.
In the 16th-century Kongo kingdom, the ruler had an army of 20,000 slaves as part of his household, and this gave him greater power than any Kongo ruler had ever held.
African rulers did not enslave their own people except for crimes or unusual circumstances, and instead enslaved their neighbors.
Expansion, centralizing states were the major suppliers of slaves to the Europeans as well as to societies in which slavery was an important institution.
European merchants and royal officials were able to tap existing routes, markets, and institu tions, but the new and constant demand also intensified enslavement in Africa and may have changed the nature of slavery in some African societies.
Between 1500 and 1750, as the gunpowder empires and expanding international commerce of Europe penetrated sub-Saharan Africa, existing states and societies were formed.
In Chapter 13, we saw that the empire of Songhay controlled a large area of the western savanna until it was defeated by a kingdom in 1591).
Competition and warfare caused instability as states tried to expand at the expense of their neighbors or to consolidate power by incorporating subject provinces.
The warrior or soldier emerged in this situation as an important social type in states such as the Kongo kingdom and Dahomey.
The sale of cap tives into the slave trade was an extension of the politics of regions of Africa because of the endless wars.
In the Muslim states of the savanna, wars took on a religious overtone of believers against non-believers, but in much of west and central Africa that was not the case.
Some authors think it's a feature of African politics, while others think it's the result of European demand for new slaves.
Millions of human beings were captured and sold.
The peoples who bore the brunt of the slaving attacks had a different trend of self-sufficiency and anti-authoritarian ideas.
Slavery and Human Society is a very old and widespread institution.
It was born to rule and serve.
The kingdom of God, servitude and the great centers of civilization can be found in Christian theology, although it is found at different times all over the globe.
It was considered a necessary reality in some societies.
It has been a marginal or secondary form of labor, but it became the main mode of pro group labor, but the condition of enslavement was taken as part of it.
As soon as authority, law, or custom could be established, the attack on slavery in western culture grew from the Enlightenment and the social and economic.
His labor could take different forms after he was coerced in the 18th century.
There are some important distinctions.
Some scholars believe that chattel slaves were an outdated form of slavery that was incompatible with industrial capitalism.
The idea of kinship was denied because of slavery.
The honor associated with a family was the antithesis of defending the institution.