Chapter 30 -- Part 8: The Great Depression and World War II
The movement to fight apartheid went beyond the borders of South Africa.
The large population of Indian descent in South Africa made the government of India an outspoken critic.
African and Asian nations supported majority rule.
The movement against apartheid grew in Europe, the United States, the Caribbean, and Latin America.
Consider how these sources define moral right and wrong in South Africa.
The opening statement was made by Nelson Mandela.
Nelson Mandela and several other ANC members were sentenced to life in prison for sabotage and conspiracy in 1963.
The opening statement in his trial was taken from it.
One of the leading global symbols of the evils of apartheid was the man who spent most of his life in prison.
Africans would like to be paid a living wage.
Africans want to perform work that they are capable of doing, and not work that the government says they are capable of doing.
We don't want to be endorsed out of an area because we weren't born there.
We don't want to be forced to live in rented houses which we can't call our own.
We want to be a part of the general population, not just in our ghettoes.
African men want their wives and children to live with them where they work, and not be forced into an unnatural existence in men's hostels.
Our women want to be with their men and not be left widowed in the reserves.
We want to be able to leave after eleven o'clock at night and not have to stay in our rooms.
We want to be able to travel in our own country and seek work where we want to, but not where the Labour Bureau tells us to.
We want a stake in society and a just share in the whole of South Africa.
The mentality of the white minority is shown in this passage.
Dad says you can say a lot about the Afrikaners, but no one can say we're dishonest.
Like the rest of the world, we don't hide our laws.
Dad says that the best blacks were taken away by the slave merchants.
The dumber blacks were the ones who left the blood in Africa.
Dad says that the clever ones and the strong ones were shipped out of Africa to America.
America has all the clever blacks and they think they can teach the Republic how to deal with us.
The rest of the world is trying to convince our natives that the Republic is theirs.
America is just as stupid.
They play into the hands of the Communists with their threats of not selling arms to the Republic.
After twelve drunk blacks were killed by police at Western Deep Levels gold-mine, some countries said they were going to stop selling arms to South Africa.
They don't understand what's going on in this country.
Dad says it doesn't matter what the rest of the world says.
The anti-apartheid movement in Britain began in the 1950s as an effort to persuade British consumers to boycott South African goods.
British calls for sanctions against the South African government grew.
There was an anti-apartheid march in Washington, D.C. in the 1970s.
The anti-apartheid struggle is linked to other movements for black liberation by the poster, which advocates for majority rule in Zimbabwe and the release of the Wilmington Ten, a group of imprisoned activists who fought against racial discrimination in North Carolina.
Using the sources above, along with what you have learned in class and in this chapter and Chapter 31, write a short essay that analyzes whether or not the anti-apartheid movement resembled other social or political movements.
The rise of democracy in South Africa was part of a larger trend of elected civilian rule in Africa after 1990.
Africa's relations with Russia and the United States changed after the end of the Cold War.
Both countries gave large-scale military and financial aid to their allies in order to undermine their rivals.
Communism's collapse in Europe ended aid to Russia's African clients.
The United States was no longer divided between allies of the Soviet Union.
The power vacuum was caused by the decrease in support for dictators.
In the early 1990s, the United States cut off decades of support for the anticommunist General Mobutu Sese Seko, who seized power in 1965 in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
The dying tyrant was overthrown by opposition groups in 1997.
More than 5 million people were killed in the SecondCongo War over the course of a decade.
The world's deadliest conflict since World War II has claimed hundreds of thousands of lives.
The agreement by national independence leaders to respect colonial borders prevented one kind of violence but resulted in another.
Political parties in countries with national boundaries created by colonial powers were often based on ethnicity and kinship.
The armed forces were often dominated by a single ethnic group.
Hundreds of thousands of people were killed in the genocides of ethnic Hutus by the Tutsis in Burundi in 1972 and in 1993 and 1994 in Rwanda.
Before the National Accord and Reconciliation Act ended the violence in 2008, there were disagreements about the legitimacy of the re- election of Mwai Kibaki.
Amid efforts to ease tensions that had created famine and hardship in Sudan, a test of the alternative to preserving national boundaries came.
In order to form a new country, 98 percent of the electorate in southern Sudan voted to break away.
Increased ethnic and political violence in South Sudan challenged the promise of peace after separation.
The strength of the democratic opposition rested on a growing class of educated urban Africans.
Higher education was expanded by post independence governments.
The middle class of educated professionals pressed for political reforms that would open up social and economic opportunities as the number of students graduating from the national university jumped from 213 in 1961, to 10,000 in 1982, and 41,000 in 1992.
After 1990 sub-Saharan Africa was associated with the global trend toward human rights.
Medical students are at the hospital.
Professional classes are growing in many African nations.
South Korea, Taiwan, Hong Kong, and Singapore experienced fantastic economic growth in the last decades of the twentieth century.
The Chinese Communist Party was able to maintain tight political control during the transition.
In the 1990s, Japan's economy was stagnant and struggled to recover.
Tensions between India and Pakistan continued.
Germany's postwar economic recovery began slowly.
The Japanese economy grew fast during the Korean War.
Japan's economic growth averaged 10 percent a year from 1950 to 1970.
Japan was the second largest economy in the world by 1978.
For the first time, Japan's average per capita income surpassed that of the United States.
outsiders were fascinated by Japan's emergence as an economic power.
Many Asians and Africans looked to Japan for the secrets of successful modernization, but some of Japan's Asian neighbors were worried about Japanese exploitation.
Some Americans and Europeans called for their governments to retaliate against each other for an unfair alliance between government and business.
The unfair relationship between Japan's business world and government was described as a nickname from the 1970s and 1980s.
In Japan's system of managed capitalism, the government protected its industry from foreign competition, decided which industries were important, and encouraged mergers to create powerful firms in those industries.
Large corporations were encouraged to develop extensive industrial and financial activities.
Workers were hired for life and social lives were centered around the company.
The bursting of a speculative bubble that crippled banks and led to record postwar unemployment in Japan's economy in the 1990s as the country faced competition from industrializing neighbors in Asia.
As Japan faced a decades-long crisis of deflation, the return to growth remained elusive.
South Korea, Taiwan, Hong Kong, and Singapore are referred to as the "Asian Tigers" because of their rapid economic development.
South Korea and Taiwan were not developed in the early postwar years.
Development was pursued through a series of reforms.
Land reform allowed small farmers to become more competitive.
Businesses were stimulated through lending, import barriers, and control of labor.
Park Chung Hee in South Korea and Jiang Jieshi in Taiwan maintained stability at the expense of democracy.
South Korea was one of the largest economies in the world by the late 1990s.
In Singapore, the prime minister who shepherded the island's independence from Britain in 1965, and held power until 1990, pursued a modernization project that came at the cost of political dissent.
Singapore became a banking and trade center linking markets in East Asia, the Middle East, Europe, and the United States.
After Jiang Jieshi fled to Taiwan with his troops, he re-established the Republic of China in exile.
Taiwan became a leader in electronic manufacturing and design over the next fifty years.
The Special Administrative Region (SAR) of Hong Kong was returned to Chinese control by Britain in 1997.
During the Cultural Revolution of 1965, Chairman Mao and the Red Guards shook up the Communist Party and created greater social equality in the cities.
Intellectuals, technicians, and purged party officials fought back against the radicals in 1969.
There was a limited but lasting reconciliation between China and the United States in 1972.
After Mao's death in 1976, Chinese leader Deng Xiaoping and his supporters initiated the " Four Modernizations": agriculture, industry, science and technology, and national defense.
The country didn't have enough food due to rigid collectivization.
Deng allowed peasants to farm in small family units rather than in large collectives and to "dare to be rich" by producing crops of their choice.
Peasants increased food production by more than 50 percent.
Further experimentation was encouraged by the successful use of free markets.
Foreign investors were allowed to open factories in southern China to make products and sell them around the world.
The business talent of "overseas" Chinese in Hong Kong and Taiwan were used by the Communist Party to find cheap labor.
Between 1978 and 1987 the Chinese economy grew rapidly and per capita income doubled.
Most large-scale industry remained state owned.
Economic change did not include greater political openness.
As Mao's health declined, the pressure for democratization grew.
After Mao's death, the People's Congress passed a new constitution that protected freedom of speech and political debate.
The Democracy Wall movement, in which citizens first in Beijing and later in other cities put up posters calling for political reforms, was a result of this opening.
The movement was suppressed.
The Four Big Rights were removed from the new constitution due to its emphasis on economic development.
The government of China kept restrictions on demonstrations and slowed economic reform as the worldwide movement for political liberalization gained steam.
Inflation went up to more than 30 percent a year.
The economic reversal, the continued lack of political freedom, and the conviction that Chinese society was becoming more corrupt led idealistic university students to organize demonstrations in 1989.
Tanks rolled into Tiananmen Square in the early hours of June 4, 1989, after the soldiers' entry into the city was blocked for two weeks.
At least seven hundred students died in China as a result of a wave of arrests and executions.
China's rulers felt vindicated when communism fell in eastern Europe.
They believed their actions had preserved Communist power, prevented chaos, and demonstrated the limits of reform.
The site of a Chinese student revolt in 1989 in which the Communists imposed martial law and killed hundreds of students.
It was published by the University of Nebraska Press.
China became a capitalist.
China joined the World Trade Organization in 2001.
The Chinese economy grew at an average annual rate of 9 percent from 1978 to 2012 and foreign trade grew at an average of 16 percent.
China replaced Japan as the world's second largest economy in March of 2011.
China's economic growth slowed to 7 percent in 2012 but it was still a high rate and strained the government's ability to pursue economic development.
As China's economy became one of the world's leading economic engines, its growth fueled global trade of commodities imported to China and manufactured goods exported around the world.
Growth from Asia to Africa and Latin America slowed due to the cooling of China's economy.
China experienced repeated pressures for democratization after the Cultural Revolution.
The Democracy Wall movement capitalized on a moment of Communist Party reform to push for political change.
Fan Shen joined the Red Guards after growing up in a military family during the Cultural Revolution.
He was sent to live in a peasant village at the age of fourteen and later worked in an aircraft factory, experiences that made him uneasy about the revolution.
The Democracy Wall movement began when he was a student.
After the movement was suppressed, Fan was posted to a teaching appointment in an industrial town, where he waited to become eligible for a passport to study in the United States, as everyone around him became ill from toxins in the water.
The secret police wanted me to spy on the Democracy Wall movement, which started quietly in Beijing in 1979.
In January, to commemorate the late premier Zhou Enlai, some people put out posters and wreath on a wall in Beijing.
Thousands of people pass by the brick wall every day.
The posters had a political slant from the beginning.
The mourners, mostly young students and factory workers, cleverly played off of and expanded on the Communist Party's latest official policy to modernize industry, agriculture, the military, and science.
The posters said that China needed to be modernized in democracy.
People's hearts were touched by the posters.
The Democracy Wall became a nationwide movement within a few weeks.
Free elections for student unions and trade unions were demanded by people.
The democracy movement was slow to catch on at Lanzhou University, which is fifteen hundred miles from the capital.
It exploded with a violent energy when it arrived.
The spring of 1980 was very similar to the spring of 1966 when the Cultural Revolution began.
Song Pingtai is an economics student.
The latter's headquarters was next to mine.
Revolutions can pick unlikely heroes.
Song, a quiet and shy man, was the hero who dared to run against a candidate picked by the Party.
He ran for the District People's Congress against another Party candidate, who was the university's party secretary.
The Party worked hard to mobilize its members.
Song won again.
In May, we saw Song walk into the auditorium of the District People's Congress, and we could feel excitement and tension in the hall.
The gray heads of the delegates turned toward the door as our man walked down the aisle.
The one who upset the tradition was the one who wasn't appointed by the Party.
There was anger in the room.
It was obvious to them that the Democracy Movement had gone too far.
It was a wonderful spring for five weeks.
At the height of the euphoria, I was worried that the Party would step in and extinguish the fire of the free election because I knew how closely the secret police had been watching the democracy movement.
I didn't think the Party would end the Democracy Movement so quickly.
Three days after Song's march into the People's Congress, the police tore down all the democracy posters in the university and declared that the Independent Student Union was illegal.
Many activists of the movement were arrested in Beijing and other cities.
The party secretary at the university ordered a two-week workshop for all students to clear their minds of any thoughts of democracy after all the signs of the democracy movement disappeared.
He told us on the first day of the workshop that no one should doubt the Party's resolve.
People forget who brought freedom to China.
Our freedom is socialism, our democracy is socialism, and they must be under the guidance of the Party.
On top of democracy there is the Party.
The Party listens to the people and decides what's best for them.
This is what Mao called a dictatorship.
Most of you will be forgiven if you confess your mistakes.
After graduation, the leaders of the democracy movement were sent to the most remote regions.
Song was sent to China's Siberia, but we didn't hear from him again.
The Tiananmen Square demonstrations of 1989 are significant for their impact on dissent in China and for the way they reflected global patterns of protest.
The protesters in Tiananmen Square were mostly students.
They began gathering at Tiananmen Square in April 1989 for a series of demonstrations about different issues, all of which were ways of calling for greater political rights, such as freedom of speech and democratization.
Tiananmen Square is a large and central public space in Beijing that is symbolic and politically important.
The location of one of the Imperial City's gates, Tiananmen Square, was a historical site and the stage for major political events such as Mao's announcement of the establishment of the People's Republic of China in 1949.
Annual military parades and Mao's addresses to the Red Guards were held in the square.
Tiananmen Square was a place where both state authority and protests were performed.
Images and messages of the Chinese state are competing with images created by protesters.
It bears some resemblance to the U.S.
The Tiananmen Square protests were violently suppressed on June 3 and 4, 1989, unlike protests in eastern Europe and Latin America that resulted in liberalizing reforms.
Between 1989 and 2010 there were fifteen years of house arrest for the opposition to the military junta that ruled Burma.
While campaigning for a peaceful transition to a democratic civilian government, she was arrested.
In her acceptance speech for the Sakharov Prize for Freedom of Thought, she talked about resistance to the dictatorship.
When students began protesting in Beijing's Tiananmen Square in 1989, a professor at Columbia University in New York was lecturing.
He became a vocal critic of China's human rights policies after returning to China.
He was sentenced to prison in 2009.
The Chinese government did not allow dissidents to accept their awards, but they did receive the peace prize.
The second excerpt is drawn from a letter that was read at the ceremony.
Courage that comes from cultivating the habit of refusing to let fear dictate one's actions, courage that could be described as "grace under pressure", is a gift but perhaps more precious.
Fear is the order of the day within a system that denies basic human rights.
Fear of imprisonment, fear of torture, fear of death, fear of losing friends, family, property or means of livelihood, fear of poverty, fear of isolation, fear of failure...
It is not easy for a person conditioned by fear to free themselves from their fear.
Fear is not the natural state of civilized man, even under the most crushing state machinery.
The wellspring of courage and endurance is generally a firm belief in the sanctity of ethical principles combined with a historical sense that despite all setbacks the condition of man is set on an ultimate course for both spiritual and material advancement.
When truth, justice and compassion are the only bulwarks against ruthless power, they cannot be dismissed as trite.
I have no enemies and no hatred.
None of the police who have monitored, arrested and interrogated me, the prosecutors who prosecuted me, or the judges who sentence me are my enemies.
I respect your profession and personality even though I can't accept your arrest, prosecution or sentencing.
China's political progress will never stop, and I'm optimistic that freedom will come to China in the future, because no force can block the human desire for freedom.
China will become a country of rule of law in which human rights are paramount.
I'm looking forward to the full court's just verdict in this case, one that can stand the test of history, and I'm also looking forward to the progress being reflected in the trial of this case.
The basis of human rights is freedom of expression.
To suppress the truth is to block freedom of speech.
Permission was granted by David Kelly.
The daughter of Jawaharlal Nehru became the prime minister of India in 1966.
She ruled Indian politics for a long time.
She subverted parliamentary democracy and declared a state of emergency in 1975.
Gandhi used her expanded powers to fight corruption, quell labor unrest, and jail her political opponents.
She started a campaign to reduce population growth.
In 1976, more than 7 million men were forcibly sterilized.
Gandhi called for free elections in 1977 despite the belief that his emergency measures marked the end of liberal democracy.
She lost an electoral contest.
She returned to power in 1980 after her successors fell to fighting among themselves.
Gandhi's last years in office were marked by ethnic nationalism.
India remained a patchwork of religions, languages, and peoples, always threatening to further divide the country along ethnic or religious lines.
The 15 million Sikhs of the Punjab in northern India have their own religion, distinctive culture and desire for greater autonomy.
The Sikh radicals were fighting for independence.
Gandhi was assassinated by Sikhs after cracking down on them.
Over a thousand Sikhs were slaughtered by Hindu mobs in India.
Rajiv Gandhi was elected prime minister in 1984.
The way for Finance Minister Manmohan Singh to introduce market reforms, capitalist development, and Western technology and investment from 1991 onward was prepared by Rajiv Gandhi.
Since the 1990s, India's economy has experienced rapid growth.
In the 1990s Hindu nationalists began to challenge the Congress Party's hold on power.
The nationalists argued that India was based on Hindu culture and religion and that these values had been undermined by the Western secularism of the Congress Party and the influence of India's Muslims.
The Hindu nationalist party gained power in 1998.
Nuclear devices were tested by the new government.
Narendra Modi became prime minister after a sweeping electoral victory.
Relations between Pakistan and India deteriorated when Pakistan announced that it had developed nuclear weapons.
The two nuclear powers seemed to be on the verge of war in 2001 until diplomatic pressure brought them back from the edge.
In 2005 both countries agreed to open business and to try to negotiate in 2008 when a Pakistan-based terrorist organization carried out a widely televised shooting and bombing attack across Mumbai, India's largest city, killing 166 and wounding over 300.
Pakistan alternated between civilian and military rule in the decades after Bangladesh's separation.
Pakistan gained military and economic assistance from the United States thanks to General Muhammad Zia-ulHaq, who ruled from 1977 to 1988.
Pakistan pursued its nuclear weapons program and chilled relations with the United States.
The military occupation of Afghanistan by the Soviets lasted from 1979 to 1989.
The Taliban took power in 1996 after the soviet withdrawal.
Al-Qaeda bases its operations in Afghanistan because of the Taliban's leadership.
The World Trade Center and the Pentagon were attacked by al-Qaeda.
The United States invaded Afghanistan and drove the Taliban from power.
The United States invaded Afghanistan in 2001.
Pakistan received billions of dollars in U.S. military aid when the alliance with the United States was renewed in 1943.
The Taliban and al-Qaeda were driven into northwest Pakistan by the U.S. combat against them.
Osama bin Laden's killing by the U.S. Special Forces strained cooperation between Pakistan and the US.
He had been hiding in a compound several hundred yards away from a military academy outside of the capital.
The country's Supreme Court was thrown into turmoil in 2007, when the country's president tried to replace the chief justice with a close ally.
When she became the first female elected head of a Muslim state when she was elected prime minister in 1988, Benazir Bhutto returned from exile to challenge the increasingly repressive military rule.
She was killed while campaigning.
After being defeated at the polls in 2008, he resigned and went into exile.
Benazir Bhutto was the first female prime minister of a Muslim nation.