The Persian Empire brought India and the Mediterranean in contact with one another, and these contacts increased with Alexander's conquests.
Alexander conquered a lot of the areas that had existed before.
There are many controversies surrounding the most famous building in Athens.
The main mystery religions of the ancient Mediterranean are examined using artistic and literary evidence.
Sex, wine, food, and other objects of desire are examined in a witty way.
The biography portrays Alexander as both ruthless and cultured.
The study focuses on not only leaders and battles, but also the human costs.
Manning, J. G.
The impact of the Ptolemies on Egyptian society is examined.
Greek thought for students.
The narrative is based on up-to-date research.
Historian Bettany Hughes takes a critical look at classical Athens, with attention to slavery, imperialism, the flow of money, and restrictions on women.
Michael Wood follows Alexander's journey from Greece to India, tracing his conquests and the meaning they have for the peoples of these areas today.
The film depicts many of Odysseus's adventures as Homer wrote them.
A decent Hollywood film that focuses on the personality and motivation of the characters as well as on the war itself, like Homer's epic.
There are materials from 2000 B.C.E.
The premier site for accessing the literature and archaeology of ancient Greek culture and now Roman as well, with hundreds of primary texts in Greek, Latin, and English translation, and thousands of images from museum collections and archaeological sites.
A fresco from a villa in Pompeii shows a young woman carrying a tray.
In 79 C.E., Pompeii was destroyed by avolcanic explosion and was completely buried in ash.
The Romans conquered all of Italy, the western Mediterranean basin, and parts of the East with the help of a republican government under the leadership of the Senate.
The wars of conquest led to serious problems that the Senate was unable to handle, as they learned about and incorporated Greek art, literature, philosophy, and religion.
The Roman Empire stretched from England to Egypt and from Portugal to Persia.
The monarchical period is the most recent of the three periods.
The colonies established by Greek poleis in the Hellenic era included a number along the coast of southern Italy and Sicily.
The area became known as Greater Greece after Greek settlers came to it.
People who lived farther north in the Italian peninsula received much of their culture from the Greek colonies.
The Etruscans built the first cities north of Magna Graecia, and then the Romans came to dominate the peninsula.
The Romans established a republic ruled by a Senate after allying with conquered peoples.
The rights to power had to be resolved.
Etruscan was developed in north-central Italy around 800 B.C.E.
When the Etruscans migrated to Italy, it's not clear if they originated in Turkey or elsewhere in southwest Asia.
The Etruscans used the Greek alphabet to write their language, which was very different from Greek and Latin.
The Etruscans established permanent settlements that evolved into cities resembling the Greek city-states and built a rich cultural life, full of art and music, that became the foundation of civilization in much of Italy.
They cultivated and mined the rich mineral resources of the surrounding countryside.
Etruscans traded iron with their Greek neighbors to the south in exchange for luxury goods throughout the Mediterranean.
Etruscan cities are thought to have been organized in leagues.
They encountered a small collection of villages called Rome.
The drape of the woman's clothing is influenced by Hellenistic Greek art.
The holders may have been holding candles.
Evidence shows that the ancestors of the Romans settled on the hills east of the Tiber around 1000 B.C.E.
The founding of Rome was told by Romans.
These show the ethics, morals, and ideals of Rome.
The city of Rome was founded by Romulus and Remus in 753 B.C.E., according to legend.
The twin brothers were the sons of the war god Mars, and their mother was a descendant of Aeneas, a brave and pious Trojan who left Troy after it was destroyed by the Greeks.
The brothers were raised by a female wolf.
When they were grown, they decided to build a city, but had a dispute over its location and named it after Romulus.
The Senate was established by him as a council of advisers.
He and his followers expanded their power by abducting and marrying their women.
The women convinced their husbands that killing kin would make them cursed.
The Romans were favored by the gods.
The Romans are descended from gods and heroes and can thrive in tough environments and mix with other people rather than being conquered, according to the founding myth.
The story shows women who were ancestors of Rome as brave.
Roman historians described a series of kings after Romulus, who was elected by the Senate.
The Etruscan kings were overthrown because of a tale about female virtue, according to tradition.
Lucretia, a Roman wife, was raped by the son of King Tarquin, the Etruscan king who ruled Rome.
She wanted her husband and father to commit suicide in front of her.
The Etruscan kings were thrown out by the Roman nobles because they swore to avenge Lucretia's death.
The Romans accepted the fact that the Etruscan kings were expelled to 509 B.C.E.
Etruscan kings ruled the city of Rome as legendary, but historians stress the influence of the Etruscans on Rome.
Rome was transformed into a real city by the Etruscans.
The Etruscans had adopted the Greeks' alphabet.
The toga and gladiatorial combat came from the Etruscans.
The basic plan of the Romans' temples, along with paved roads from the Etruscans, were adopted in engineering and architecture.
The city of Rome appears to have been ruled by kings.
The kings may have been helped by a hereditary aristocracy.
The power of the executive was in the hands of two people, who were elected for one-year terms only, not for life, but who commanded the army in battle, administered state business, and supervised financial affairs.
Rome became a republic.
There is a bit of history at the core of the myths.
The assembly was the main institution of power in the Roman Republic.
The Roman Republic's primary executives were elected for one-year terms, who commanded the army in battle, administered state business and supervised financial affairs.
The Romans fought many wars with their neighbors on the Italian peninsula after the establishment of the republic.
The Roman army was mostly made up of citizens of Rome.
The Romans became masters through diplomacy.
The Romans rebuilt their city in the century that followed.
They conquered Etruria and brought Latium and their Latin allies under their control.
The Romans conquered southern Italy and then turned north.
Their superior military institutions, organization, and manpower allowed them to conquer most of Italy by about 265 B.C.E.
As Rome expanded, it built roads linking major cities and gave different degrees of citizenship to the territories it conquered.
The territories that are separate from the Italian peninsula were added by 218 B.C.E.
as a result of the Punic Wars.
The Romans spread their religious traditions throughout Italy as they expanded their territory.
Religion for the Romans was mostly about honoring one's own ancestors and showing loyalty to the state.
Romans believed that bravery, morality, seriousness, family, and home were the most important civic values and that religious rituals were an important way of expressing them.
Victorious generals made sure to honor the gods of the people they had conquered and transformed them into gods so that they could call on assistance in their future campaigns.
The Greek deities were absorbed into the Roman pantheon as the Romans conquered the cities of Magna Graecia.
The Romans built roads after they conquered an area like the Persians did.
Communication, trade, and armies flowed from the capital tooutlying areas on Roman roads.
The Romans shared full Roman citizenship with many of their oldest allies, including the inhabitants of the cities of Latium.
Without the right to vote or hold Roman office, they granted citizenship in other instances.
The allies were subject to Roman taxes and had to serve in the military.
The republican government was an important part of Roman political life.
The republic's constitution evolved over two centuries to meet the demands of the governed.
Fifty years ago, a vote was held about whether or not a descendant of the moneyer should be the prosecutor in a trial charging three virgins with unchastity.
Longinus chose this image as a way to advance his political career by suggesting his family's long history of public office.
The shape of politics was determined by social divisions.
The patricians, whose privileged legal status was determined by their birth as members of certain families, had political power.
The common people of Rome, the plih-BEE-uhns, were free citizens with a voice in politics, but they had few political and social advantages.
Poor artisans, small farmers, and landless urban dwellers were the majority of the plebeians.
The political power in the republic was held by the Roman hereditary aristocracy.
The common people of Rome had few advantages.
The Romans elected high officials and passed laws.
The Senate was the most important.
The Senate dealt with government finances and military matters during the republic.
The Senate provided stability and its advice came to have the force of law because it sat year after year with the same members.
Relations between Rome and other powers were handled by the Senate.
The positions of the highest officials in the republic were open only to patrician men.
Praetors were able to act in their place when the consuls were away.
After the age of overseas conquests, the Romans divided their lands in the Mediterranean into provinces.
The development of law was a lasting achievement of the Romans.
All sides were to be treated the same in the ius gentium.
Natural law is made up of rules that govern human behavior that come from applying reason rather than traditions, and so applies to all societies.
Roman officials generally interpreted the law to the advantage of Rome, at least to the extent that the strength of the Roman armies allowed them to enforce it.
Roman law was seen as one of Rome's most important legacies.
The Struggle of the Orders was caused by inequality between patricians and plebeians.
The plebeians wanted to increase their power by taking advantage of the fact that Rome's survival depended on its army.
In 494 B.C.E., there was a tradition.
The general strike worked.
The Senate could veto the decisions of the tribunes, who were elected by the plebeians, because of military needs for foot soldiers.
The law was the primary target.
Only the patricians could argue cases in court.
They used the law for their own benefit a lot.
The law should be codified and published.
Legal procedures were made public so that people could argue in court.
The patricians passed a law that allowed them to marry one another for the first time.
The Licinian-Sextian laws passed after ten years of fighting.
They could advise on policy once they were able to hold the consulship.
This victory did not end the Struggle of the Orders.
Only in the year 287 B.C.E.
did that happen.
Roman territory continued to expand as the republican government grew.
The Romans conquered lands all around the Mediterranean.
Many Romans were influenced by the culture of Greece and became more cosmopolitan and comfortable.
The wars opened up unprecedented opportunities for ambitious generals who wanted to rule Rome like an empire.
republican government did not survive a series of civil wars.
grandiose strategies to conquer the world were not mapped out by the Romans.
They responded to the situations that came up.
They wanted to eliminate any state they thought was a military threat.
Carthage, a great power in the western Mediterranean, was confronted by the Romans on the island of Sicily.
Carthage was founded as a trading colony in the eighth century B.C.E.
The Carthaginians created a empire that stretched from western Sicily to beyond Gibraltar.
The first war was fought during the course of the first century B.C.E., between the Romans and Carthaginians.
Despite a peace treaty, the conflict was not over as Sicily became Rome's first province.
There were three wars between Rome and Carthage.
In this fresco painting from the temple of Isis in Pompeii, two triremes -- narrow warships powered by several banks of long oars -- race in what is most likely a festival celebrating the goddess.
The Greeks, Carthaginians, and Romans all used triremes, which were designed to smash into enemy ships.
The one hundred to two hundred oarsmen had to row in time to achieve the necessary speed, which took long practice, so this religious celebration also served a military purpose.
Rome was also claiming territory when Carthaginian armies moved into Spain.
There was a devastating blow at Cannae in southeastern Italy in 216 B.C.E.
He spread destruction throughout Italy.
In central Italy, Hannibal was not able to win areas near Rome.
In the year 202 B.C.E., the town of Zama was the site of one of the world's most decisive battles.
The world of the western Mediterranean would now be Roman.
The seeds of other wars were contained in the Second Punic War.
Fear of Carthage led to the Third Punic War.
The Romans turned east after the Second Punic War.
Antigonid Macedonia became a Roman province after the Roman victory.
They defeated the Seleucid monarchy after moving farther east.
The Ptolemies of Egypt obeyed Roman wishes in regards to trade policy.
Rome became a great city after the conquest of the Mediterranean world.
The spoils of war went to build theaters, stadiums, and other places of amusement, and Romans and Italians began to spend more time in leisure activities.
Hellenistic influences were reflected in the new urban culture.