Chapter 21 -- Part 3: Continuity and Change in East Asia
China and Japan were connected by maritime trade and piracy in the 1400s.
Both Korea and Japan used Chinese coinage, while China used silver from Japan.
China launched overseas expeditions during the 15th century.
A major base for pirates was Japan.
European traders were interested in Chinese porcelains and silks.
Christian missionaries followed.
Portuguese, Dutch, and British traders dominated the international makeup of European traders in East Asia due to political changes in Europe.
An extraordinary series of voyages to the Indian Ocean was authorized by the third Ming emperor, Chengzu, in order to invite more countries to send missions.
The seven voyages that Zheng led between 1405 and 1433 followed old Arab trade routes.
A fleet of 317 ships made the first of the seven.
The expeditions involved from twenty thousand to thirty-two thousand men.
In the later voyages, Hormuz (on the coast of Persia) and East Africa were included.
At each stop, he went to visit rulers, transmit messages of China's peaceful intentions, and give lavish gifts.
Accommodations were offered on the return voyages when rulers were invited to come to China or send envoys.
Chinese pirates were brought under control near the Straits of Malacca.
He deposed rulers in Java, Sumatra, and Sri Lanka.
These expeditions were not voyages of discovery, but rather diplomatic ones.
The officials complained about their costs and returns.
After 1474, all the ships with three or more masts were broken up and used for lumber.
The Chinese government did not promote trade in the South China Sea and Indian Ocean, leaving the initiative to private merchants and migrants.
The piracy problem along the China coast was one of the goals of Zheng He's expeditions.
In the 13th century social disorder and banditry in Japan had expanded into seaborne banditry, which occurred in the Japanese islands around the Inland Sea, in the straits between Korea and Japan, and along the Korean and Chinese coasts.
Pirates captured people and held them for money.
Sea bandits took to attacking ships to steal their cargo as maritime trade grew more lively.
The Korean and Chinese called the pirates the "Japanese pirates", but pirate gangs from all over the world recruited them.
The Ryukyu Islands and Taiwan became major bases.
The same waters were used by pirates and traders in the 16th century.
The Portuguese set up trading ports.
After his victories in unifying Japan, Hideyoshi decided to extend his territory across the seas.
In 1590, Hideyoshi sent a letter to the Koreans asking them to allow his armies to pass through their country, declaring that his real target was China.
The Spanish governor of the Philippines was one of the countries he sent demands for submission to.
Hideyoshi equipped his soldiers and sailors with muskets and cannons, which were recently introduced into Japan.
Within three weeks, his forces reached both Korean cities.
In the middle of winter, Chinese armies arrived to help defend Korea, and Japanese forces were pushed back from North Korea.
New Japanese troops arrived in 1597 to end the stalemate.
The Korean navy and the Ming army were able to defeat the Japanese.
After Hideyoshi's death, the Japanese army withdrew from Korea.
The population grew from about 4.4 million in 1400 to about 8 million in 1600, 10 million in 1700, and 14 million in 1810, which is about half the size of Japan's population and one-twentieth of China's.
Slavery declined with economic advances.
It was less expensive to replace slaves with sharecroppers when they ran away.
The slave population dropped from 30 percent to 5 percent.
The hold of the elite remained strong.
Few slots for commoners to rise to through study were left because of the dominance of the yangban families.
In 1597, the local daimyo was ordered to accompany the Buddhist priest Keinen on Hideyoshi's second campaign in Korea.
He deplored the death and suffering that he observed as a Buddhist.
Keinen ends each day's entry with a short poem.
The excerpt begins about six weeks after he left.
Everyone is trying to be the first off the ship.
They are trying to kill people by falling over each other.
I can't bear to look at it.
A hubbub rises from the clouds and mist where they are angry at the plunder of innocent people's goods.
The houses are on fire.
I thought of my own existence as I watched them go up in smoke.
The "Red Country" is what they call it, but black is the smoke that comes from the burning houses.
The hillsides and fields have been burned to the ground.
People can either be put to the sword or chained up with bamboo tubes around their neck.
I have never seen a sight like that before.
The hills are ablaze with the cries of soldiers who are drunk.
I was drawn to the various kinds of plunder amassed by them all.
I wondered how I could get salvation like this.
I felt more and more ashamed as I reflected on my spiritual state on the same day.
They are killing their parents.
This is like the torture meted out by the fiends of hell.
People's houses went up in smoke as night fell.
They lost everything to the fire.
The scorched earth is where I will lay my head tonight because of the smoke still there from the burned grain.
The fortress will be attacked before dawn tomorrow.
The bamboo has been given to the troops.
The sun was about to set as they worked their way close in, right up against the edge of the castle's bulwarks, and gunfire opened up from the several siege detachments, accompanied by arrows shot from short-bows.
Many men were killed.
The number of dead is beyond the count.
The castle fell during the night.
Hishu's troops were the first to enter the walls.
He is going to get a vermilion-seal letter of commendation.
The last man and woman were killed in the fortress.
No prisoners were taken.
Some were kept alive for exchange purposes.
The world of sorrow and inconstancy has one constant -- men and women, young and old, die and disappear.
They didn't know that they would have to die until yesterday, and now they are in a world of constant change.
The impermanence of phenomena and the need to let go of attachment is taught by Buddhism.
The book was reproduced with the permission of Columbia University Press.
An allusion to the tale of a mother bird's sad departure to the four directions.
Portuguese, Spanish, and Dutch merchants began to participate in the East Asian maritime world in the 16th century.
The trade between Japan, China, and Southeast Asia was very profitable and European traders wanted a piece of it.
They wanted to develop trade between Asia and Europe.
The Portuguese and Dutch seized many outposts along the trade routes, including Taiwan.
They didn't make a distinction between piracy and trade.
The Portuguese were banned from China in 1521.
An expeditionary force commissioned by the Portuguese king to negotiate a friendship treaty was defeated by firing on Chinese warships two years later.
Local Chinese officials decided in 1557 to allow the Portuguese to build a trading post near the mouth of the Pearl River in order to regulate trade.
Macao was the first place for Europeans to go to China until the 19th century.
Silver was in demand in China.
With the development of silver mines in the New World, European traders began supplying large quantities of silver to China, allowing the expansion of China's economy.
The Chinese were quick to take advantage of the new trading ports.
Manila, under Spanish control, and Taiwan, under Dutch control, attracted a lot of Chinese people.
Chinese ships outnumbered those from any other country by two or three.
Riots against Chinese led to massacres on several occasions, and local people felt the intrusion of Chinese more than Europeans.
New World crops were a side benefit of European traders.
Sweet potatoes, maize, peanuts, tomatoes, chili peppers, tobacco, and other crops were quickly adopted in East Asia.
Sweet potatoes and maize can be grown on land that was thought too sandy or steep to cultivate.
Poor people used to eat sweet potatoes.
China and Japan attracted the attention of the Jesuit priest.
He was the first Christian missionary to arrive in Japan in 1549.
He traveled throughout western Japan after he was kicked out of the local lord.
He made many converts among the poor and daimyo.
He died on an island off the China coast in 1552.
There were three hundred thousand Christians in Japan by the year 1600.
The shogun's power was weak and the daimyo's loyalty was questionable.
The Christian samurai supported Tokugawa Ieyasu's enemies at the Battle of Osaka.
Thirty thousand peasants in the heavily Catholic area of northern Kyushu revolted a couple of decades later.
Christianity was associated with domestic disorder and insurrection by the Tokugawa Shogunate.
Thousands of Japanese Christians were crucified.
In China, the Jesuits focused on getting the linguistic and scholarly knowledge they would need to convert the educated class.
The Jesuit Matteo Ricci studied for years in Macao before moving to Nanjing to try to win over the educated class.
He was given permission to reside in Beijing in 1601.
The official and his granddaughter are Chinese converts.
Ricci believed that Confucianism was compatible with Christianity.
The Jesuits believed that both faiths shared similar concerns for morality and virtue, and that the Confucian practice of making food offerings to ancestors was an expression of filial reverence.
The Franciscan and Dominican friars took a vow of poverty.
The pope decided in 1715 that the Jesuits' approach wastical because of religious and political disagreements in Europe.
The emperor forbade all Christian work in China.
Although China and Japan did not allow Christian missionary work, other aspects of Western culture were seen as worth learning.
European merchants were kept in small enclaves by the Japanese.
Japan's interest in Europe did not disappear.
A stream of Western ideas, arts, and inventions trickled into Japan in the 18th century through the Dutch enclave of Deshima on a tiny island in Nagasaki harbor.
Dutch traders are shown interacting with a Japanese samurai in a room with Japanese tatami mats on the floor.
Both scholars and rulers in China were interested in Western learning.
The Jesuits and the emperor had a lot of questions for each other.
He accepted the Jesuits' offer of quinine when he got Malaria.
The Jesuits were appointed to the Board of Astronomy by the court after they were impressed with their astronomy skills.
The observatory was re-equipped with European instruments in 1674.
The emperor and his successors used Italian painters to make imperial portraits.
The firearms and mechanical clocks were popular.
The Jesuits were ordered by the emperor to make cannon for him and to supervise gunnery practice.
Admiration was more than one-sided.
China had a good reputation in Europe in the early 18th century.
The Chinese political system had advantages because the rulers didn't put up with hypocritical people.
European interest in Chinese medical practice.
Early on, Europeans adopted the Chinese practice of variolation.
From the 16th to the 18th century, the East Asian maritime world underwent many changes.
The Japanese pulled back their own traders and limited opportunities for Europeans to trade in Japan.
In order to curb piracy in China, the government limited trading with Europe to Guangzhou in the far south.
The British became as active as the Dutch in the 18th century after Portugal lost many of its bases to the Dutch.
In the 17th century the British and Dutch sought porcelains and silk, but in the 18th century tea became the most sought after commodity.
Colorful porcelains were popular in Europe in the 17th and 18th century.
Chinese potters were able to apply many colors to a single object thanks to the use of over glazes.
There are blue, green, yellow, orange, and red on this vase.
Britain did not see why China should be able to dictate terms of trade by the late 18th century.
In 1793, King George III sent Lord George Macartney to China with six hundred cases of British goods, including pottery and landscape paintings.
The emperor was not impressed.
The native Ming Dynasty ruled China for nearly three centuries after the fall of the Mongols.
The dynasty's founder ruled for thirty years and became more paranoid.
China thrived in many ways despite the fact that few of his successors were particularly good rulers.
Population increased as food production increased.
More and more men were getting ready for the civil service exams.
Publishing houses put out novels, short stories, and plays for large audiences in the city.
The non- Chinese Manchus defeated the Ming Dynasty in 1644.
The Manchu rulers were able to maintain peace and expand the empire to include Tibet and Central Asia, despite being less competent than the Ming emperors.
The population grew quickly under Manchu rule.
Civil war fragmented Japan during the 15th and 16th centuries.
Hideyoshi gained control of most of the country after daimyo attacked and defeated each other.
The influence of Zen ideas on the arts and the rise of No theater were some of the cultural developments that occurred in Japan.
The founder of the Tokugawa Shogunate seized power after Hideyoshi's death.
The rewards of peace were enjoyed by Japan during the 17th and 18th centuries.
The rulers tried to create stability by limiting foreign contact and freezing the social structure.
The samurai became poorer as the wealth of the business classes grew.
The samurai and others were looking for work and pleasure.
Between 1400 and 1800 the countries of Asia were connected by maritime trade.
China sent out naval expeditions to promote diplomatic contacts, reaching as far as Africa.
European traders arrived in China and Japan in the 16th century.
The Chinese economy became so dependent on huge imports of silver that a cutoff in supplies caused severe hardship.
New World crops and new ideas were brought about by trade with Europe.
Western science and learning were banned in Japan and China after the Catholic missionaries arrived in Asia.
Western painting, astronomy, and firearms were of interest to the Chinese.
The ideas flowed from East to West because Europeans saw so much to like in East Asia.
From 1400 to 1800, the countries of East Asia became increasingly connected.
For the first time a war was fought between China, Korea, and Japan because of trade and piracy on the oceans.
Their cultures and social structures were not in alignment.
In Japan elite status was hereditary, while in China it was important to do well on a written exam.
In Japan the samurai elite were expected to be skilled warriors, but in China the highest prestige went to men of letters.
The woodblock prints of Japan show a different world than the one in China.
East Asian countries were 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 The story of the revolutions in America, France, and Haiti, as well as the Industrial Revolution that began in Britain, are the next two chapters.
These revolutions would change East Asia as well.
Explain the significance of each item.
How people made sense of violence and social change is examined by using diaries and other records.
The rulers' point of view is reflected in the lively account.
In China, savesay savesay savesay savesay savesay savesay savesay savesay savesay savesay savesay savesay savesay savesay savesay savesay savesay savesay savesay savesay savesay savesay savesay savesay savesay savesay savesay savesay savesay savesay savesay savesay savesay savesay savesay savesay savesay savesay savesay savesay savesay savesay savesay savesay savesay savesay savesay savesay savesay savesay savesay savesay savesay savesay savesay The emperors at the top and the outlaws at the bottom are shown.
The standard of living was the same in the Edo period as it was in the West.
The Chinese government dealt with a number of crimes, including neighborhood feuds, murder, and sedition.
An introduction to the aesthetic style associated with Zen and its connection to shogunate patrons.
The most advanced areas of China were just as advanced as the most advanced regions of Europe through the 18th century.
An up-to-date and thoughtful narrative of the Manchu rulers and their empire.
It connects the state, the family and the market.
There is a documentary about Chinese civilization that is tied to the Yellow River and other civilizations connecting to the ocean.
Sen no Rikyu, the famous tea master, and Toyotomi Hideyoshi, the leader who united Japan in the 16th century, are brought together in an award-winning movie.
The Jesuit missionaries were in Japan when the government began persecuting Christians.
The conflicts between the Nationalists in Taiwan and the Communists in the twentieth century are reflected in a dramatization of the conflict between the Ming loyalists in Taiwan and the Dutch.
There are videos on the Asian Topics website about the Tokugawa period.