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The atoms are drawn together and bonds are created.
There is room for another electron in the hydrogen atoms.
When two hydrogen atoms are close together, they share each other's electrons, and in this way, the orbit of each atom is completely filled part of the time.
The two atoms are pulled together by a rubber band.
The atoms are bound into a molecule by the sharing of electrons.
The coulomb repulsion of the nuclei keeps the atoms apart.
The equilibrium between atoms in a molecule is determined by counter forces.
In a similar way, bulk matter is formed.
Helium and other elements cannot share electrons with other elements.
Both emission and absorption are characteristic of Molecules.
Molecules are more complex than atoms because they are more electronic.
Each type of molecule has its own spectrum that can be interpreted.
Each species has its own absorption and emission spectrum.
They can be used to identify atoms and molecules.
Basic experiments with atoms and molecules were the first to use microscopes.
The products of complex chemical reactions are identified with the help of spectroscopy.
In medicine, the concentration of certain atoms and Molecules is determined with the help of Spectroscopy.
One can determine the level of mercury in the body by analyzing urine.
The blood-sugar level is determined by a chemical reaction in the sample which produces a colored product.
The concentration of the colored product is proportional to the blood-sugar level.
The basic principles are easy to understand.
The sample under investigation is excited by an electric current or flame.
The emitted light is identified.
The sample is placed in the path of light.
The components in the substance are identified by the missing wavelength of the transmitted light.
Information about the concentration of the various components in the substance can be provided by the absorption and emission spectrum.
In the case of emission, the intensity of the light in the spectrum is proportional to the number of atoms.
The concentration can be related to the amount of absorption.
The intensity of light is recorded as a function of wavelength.
The focusing system creates a beam of light.
The beam can be broken up by the prism.
The fanned-out spectrum can be photographed and identified.
The spectrum is usually detected by a small section at a time.
The narrow exit slit intercepts a portion of the spectrum.
The whole spectrum is swept past the slit when the prism is rotating.
The wavelength impinging on the slit affects the position of the prism.
The electrical signal from the light that passes through the slit is proportional to the light intensity.
A chart recorder can show the intensity of the signal as a function of wavelength.
Spectrometers can be used by relatively unskilled personnel in routine clinical work.
The identification and interpretation of the spectrum produced by less well-known molecules requires considerable training and skill.
Information about the structure of the molecule can also be found in the spectrum.
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