The hot air balloon flying over Putrajaya is hotter than the ambient air.
The balloon feels a force pushing it upward.
The thermal behavior of gases is explored in this section.
We look at the characteristics of atoms and Molecules that compose gases.
Gases can be compressed.
In Table 13.2, we can see that gases have the largest coefficients of volume expansion.
The large coefficients show that gases contract quickly with temperature changes.
Most gases expand at the same rate or have the same.
This raises the question of why gases should act in the same way when liquids and solids have different expansion rates.
When atoms collide with each other, the forces between them can be ignored.
At temperatures well above the boiling temperature, the motion of atoms and molecules is fast, so that the gas occupies all of the accessible volume and the expansion of gases is rapid.
In liquids, atoms and molecules are close together and sensitive to the forces between them.
In a gas, the atoms and molecules are often separated.
The properties of a gas depend more on the number of atoms per unit volume than on the type of atom, because the forces between them are weak at these distances.
If you want to understand how pressure, temperature, and volume of a gas are related to one another, consider what happens when you deflate a tire.
The tire's volume increases in proportion to the amount of air injected, without much increase in the tire pressure.
The walls limit volume expansion once the tire has expanded to nearly its full size.
The pressure increases if we keep pumping air into it.
When the tires move, the pressure will increase.
The optimal tire pressure is specified by most manufacturers.
The atoms and molecules can be ignored at room temperatures.
The ideal gas law is the relationship between the pressure, volume, and temperature of the gas.
The absolute pressure of a gas is the volume it occupies, the number of atoms and the temperature.
The ideal gas law can be derived from basic principles, but was originally deduced from experimental measurements of Charles' law, which states that the volume occupied by a gas is proportional to temperature at a fixed pressure.
The ideal gas model has a negligible amount of atoms and Molecules.
The ideal gas law describes the behavior of gases.
The ideal gas law is consistent with the behavior of filling the tire when it is pumped slowly and the temperature is constant.
When the pressure is equal to atmospheric pressure, the volume increases in proportion to the number of atoms and molecules put into the tire.
The equation predicts that the pressure should increase when the tire volume is constant.
If you have a fully inflated bicycle tire, the absolute pressure would be just under the temperature.
There are no leaks or changes in volume.
The tire's pressure is changing because of the temperature.
We need to identify what we know and what we want to know, and then figure out an equation to solve for the unknown.
We know the initial pressure, initial temperature, and final temperature.
We need to find the final pressure.
It may seem like there isn't enough information given because the volume and number of atoms aren't specified.
We can come up with an equation if we divide by.
They cancel out when the volume is the same.
The values should be replaced into the equation.
The final temperature is more than the original, so the final pressure is also more than the original.
The ideal gas law requires absolute pressure and absolute temperature to be used.
At room temperature, inflate a balloon.
The balloon should be left in the refrigerator.
The ideal gas law can give us an idea of how large typically is.
Determine the number of molecule in a gas at a standard temperature and pressure.
The ideal gas law can be used because pressure, volume, and temperature are all specified.
The knowns should be identified.
The number of molecules is unknown.
Rearrange the ideal gas law.
Substitute the known values into the equation.
Considering that a gas is mostly empty space, this number is large.
A gas at STP has something in it.
It is the same for all types of gases.
When measuring the amount of substance, it's convenient to work with a unit other than the molecule.
He came up with the idea of the mole based on the idea that equal volumes of gas, at the same pressure and temperature, have the same number of molecules.
The number is not related to the type of gas.
Particles are independent of the element or substance.
A mole of any substance has a mass in grams equal to its atomic mass, which can be calculated from the periodic table of elements.
Table tennis balls cover the Earth to a depth of about 40 km.
The active ingredient in a pill is acetaminophen.
The molar mass is the mass of one mole.
To do this, we need to add the number of atoms to the mass of the element.
We need to calculate the number of moles.
Avogadro's number is used to calculate the number of molecules.
The number of moles can be found by dividing the number of molecules by Avogadro's number.
The accepted value is 22.4 L/mol.
The slight difference is due to rounding errors.
The same number is used for all gases.
It is not dependent on the gas.
The mass of air is 1.28 kilograms.
The typical mass of a human is 96 kilogrammes, which is the mass of air inside a living room.
Thinking about what is happening is the best way to approach the question.
The volume must double if the density drops to half its original value.
When the temperature is constant, the pressure is proportional to volume.
The ideal gas law uses the number of moles rather than the number of atoms and molecules.
That's the number of moles.
The ideal gas law is defined by the universal gas constant.
It is possible to use whichever value is most convenient.
Pick an equation to solve for the unknown and identify the knowns and unknowns.
The ideal gas law is for the number of moles.
The knowns should be identified.
Substitute known values with the equation to solve it.
Our known quantities are in SI units, so it's the most convenient choice.
The ideal gas law can be seen as another example of the law ofConservation of Energy, which states that an increase in its energy, increasing pressure and/or temperature, or decreasing volume, is a result of ork done on a gas.
This increased energy can be seen as an increase in the internal energy of the gas.
We can now look at the role of energy in the behavior of gases.
When you inflate a bike tire by hand, you exert a force through a distance.
This energy increases the pressure of air inside the tire and increases the temperature of the pump.
The units on both sides of the gas law are joules.
This term refers to the amount of energy that a molecule has at an absolute temperature.
The ideal gas law has the units of joules on the left side.
The study of fluids shows that pressure is one type of potential energy per unit volume.
There is energy in a gas because of its pressure and volume.
The energy can be changed when the gas expands, similar to what happens in gasoline or steam engines.
Determine if an ideal gas is involved by examining the situation.
Most gases are good.
Make a list of what quantities are given, or can be inferred from the problem as stated.
Identifying the unknown quantities is what needs to be determined in the problem.
A written list can be useful.
Determine whether the number of moles is known or not in order to decide which form of the ideal gas law to use.
The number of atoms is the first form.
The number of moles is the second form.
The quantity to be determined is determined by the ideal gas law.
To eliminate the unknown quantities that are kept fixed, you may need to take a ratio of final states to initial states.
Get numerical solutions complete with units by substituting the known quantities, along with their units, into the equation.
It's important to use absolute temperature and absolute pressure.
The atoms and molecules are 888-609- 888-609- 888-609- They are separated by space in gases.
Gases have lower densities than liquids.
The density and volume are related to the size of the body.