ChAPTER 31 -- Part 3: Civilizations in Crisis: The Ottoman
Napoleon's invasion of Egypt in 1798 sent shock waves across the Muslim world because it did not establish a permanent European presence in the Islamic heartlands.
Napoleon's motives for launching the expedition had nothing to do with designs for empire in the Middle East.
The French had come out on the short end of earlier wars for empire, so he thought the Egyptian campaign was the beginning of the destruction of British power in India.
Napoleon's fleet was able to slip past the British blockade in the Mediterranean and land in July 1798.
One of the most important military battles in modern history took place there.
The Mamluks were slaves who served Muslim overlords and then advanced in the ranks as military commanders and seized power in their own name.
The forces that led to the and military strength increased social tensions and undermined the break up of the great civilizations.
Social unrest from within was related to the decline of civilizations.
Threats from without are internal weaknesses.
The raids held the civilizations together.
The disappearance of civilized development occurred elsewhere.
The technological discoveries of the 17th and 18th century restored the patterns of civilized life that were quite different innovations that transformed Europe in the 17th and 18th century.
The extent of the incursions helped to destroy centuries earlier.
In wars, neighbors clashed on their sources of power for resources.
The demise of another was being translated into this power.
In areas such as Mesopotamia, the economic, military, and political domi civilizations were crowded together in space and time.
The adverse effects of eco from nomadic peoples were one of the threats to the civilizations that were reduced to spheres.
The collapse of west Africa was caused by the rise and spread of Western political domina tion and Islamic civiliza nomic influences from the West.
Before World War I, it was thought that the advanced sion from Arabia would level all other civilized centers.
Most leading European, and some African and Asian think from earlier and later nomadic assaults on neighboring civiliza ers and political leaders that the rest of humankind had tions.
The new religion the Arab armies carried with them was the basis for a new civilization that followed the path of development pioneered by the older ones they conquered.
The non-Western peoples became preoccupied with conquerors and the Arabs used the challenges posed by the industrial West to their advantage.
From the first years of overseas exploration, can you think of instances in which one preindustrial civilization proved to be a threat to other civilizations?
The Native American societies were invaded in the 16th century because of the previous isolation from Europe, Africa, and Asia.
In that brief but bloody battle, the French legions devastated the ranks of Mamluk cavalry, who were clad in medieval armor and wielded spears against the artillery Napoleon used with such devastating effect.
The Mamluks were seen as fighters of great prowess in the Islamic world.
It showed how vulnerable the Muslim core areas were to European aggression and how far behind the Muslims were in the ability to wage war.
Napoleon and the French did not benefit from the successful invasion of Egypt.
The British sank most of the French fleet at the Battle of Aboukir in 1798.
With his supply line cut off, Napoleon was forced to abandon his army and sneak back to Paris, where his enemies were trying to put an end to his rise to power.
Egypt was spared European conquest for a while.
The Albanian upstart was so impressed by the weapons and discipline of the French armies that he devoted his energy and resources to building an up-to-date European-style mili tary force.
He introduced Western-style conscrip tion among the Egyptian peasantry, hired French officers to train his troops, imported Western arms, and adopted Western tactics and modes of supply.
The most effective fighting force in the Middle East was put together by him.
He violated the authority of the Ottoman sultan by invading Syria and building a modern war fleet that threatened Istanbul.
After Napoleon's victory in the Battle of the Pyramids, reforms patterned after Western precedents were put in place.
Demand for power in Europe was high.
Efforts to improve Egyptian harbors, particularly Alexandria, and struggle in egypt after the fall resulted in modest increases in the revenues that could of Mamluks.
Attempts to reform education were introduced but little was achieved.
The opposition of the European powers and tactics and supply and a variety of intense competition from imported, Western-manufactured goods were frustrated by numerous schemes to build up an Egyptian industrial sector army based on Western.
The formal rulers of Egypt were overthrown by a military coup in 1952.
The successors of Muhammad Ali made a mess of his efforts to reform Egyptian society.
The landlord class grew fat and the peasants went hungry.
The long-term consequences of these developments were troubling.
The expansion of cotton production rendered Egypt less able to export.
It was vulnerable to sharp fluctuations in demand and price on the European markets where most of it was exported.
Further educational advances were made.
French was the language of instruction at elite schools.