Males have greater muscular development due to Testosterone.
Both males and females take steroids to build up their muscles.
A sperm must follow a pathway from its origin to its exit from the male reproductive tract.
List the fluids that are in the semen.
List the functions of the human female reproductive system.
Explain what is happening in each stage of the ovarian and uterine cycles.
The female gonads are located on each side of the upper Pelvic Cavity.
One oocyte is produced by the ovaries every month.
Fertilization occurs in the uterus.
The vagina is used for sexual intercourse.
The opening of the vagina is partially occluded at birth.
The hymen are disrupted by physical activities and sexual intercourse.
The structure and function of the major organs and structures of the female reproductive system will be explored in this section.
The fallopian tubes are not attached to the ovaries and are called uterine tubes.
They have projections called fimbriae that sweep over the ovaries.
When an oocyte burst from an ovary, it is usually swept into a uterine tube by the combined action of the fimbriae and the cilia that line the uterine tubes.
Fertilization usually takes place in a uterus.
The embryo is propelled by ciliary movement and tubular muscle contraction.
Each month, the ovaries produce one oocyte.
The organ is about the size and shape of an inverted pear.
The embryo is embedded in the endometrium, the lining of the uterus.
The vaginal canal can be reached by a small opening in the cervix.
The vagina has a 45 degree angle to the small of the back.
The vagina has a lining of folds.
When the vagina serves as the birth canal, and it can facilitate intercourse when the penis is received during copulation, this is especially important.
The vagina is home to several different types ofbacteria.
The environment provided by semen is protective against the growth ofbacteria, but sperm prefer the basic environment provided by semen.
The vagina is moist and lubricated during intercourse.
The clitoris has a shaft of tissue that is capped by glans.
The clitoris is a sexually sensitive organ.
The clitoris has more nerve endings than the penis.
Female orgasm is similar to male orgasm.
There is a release of tension in the muscles of the vagina and uterus in the female.
Epithelial cells surround a primary oocyte.
There are pools of fluid around the oocyte.
A single follicle goes through all the stages in one place.
The secondary oocyte is surrounded by layers of follicle cells.
The follicle becomes the corpus luteum.
The number of chromosomes is reduced during oogenesis.
Fertilization increases the number of chromosomes.
One cell is a primary oocyte and the other is a polar body.
The secondary oocyte is surrounded by a clear membrane after the vesicular follicle burst.
The process is referred to as Once a vesicular follicle has lost the secondary oocyte.
If fertilization occurs, the sperm enters the secondary oocyte, which becomes an egg.
When the sperm nucleus and egg nucleus unite, there is a baby with 46 chromosomes.
After about 10 days, the corpus luteum begins to decline if there is no zygote formation.
This cycle is regulated by two hormones from the anterior pituitary.
GnRH is produced by the hypothalamus.
The sex organs and secondary sex characteristics are maintained by estrogen and progesterone.
The amount of hormones in the blood is regulated by feedback control.
The hormones FSH and LH are not present in Page 773 constant amounts and instead are produced at different rates during the cycle.
The follicular phase comes to an end when the estrogen level in the blood goes up.
During the luteal phase of the ovarian cycle, LH promotes the development of the corpus luteum.
The structure causes the endometrium to become secretory.
Menstruation and the proliferative phase begin when progesterone production is low.
Positive feedback is given to the hypothalamus and anterior pituitary when the level of estrogen in the blood is very high.
The hypothalamus suddenly produces a large amount of GnRH.
As the blood level of progesterone rises, it exerts negative feedback control over the anterior pituitary, so that the corpus luteum begins to decline.
As the luteal phase comes to an end, low levels of hormones in the body cause menstruation to begin.
The three phases of the 28day cycle are described next.
The menstrual period is also known as the monthly period.
The embryo is ready to be received by the endometrium.
As menstruation occurs, the endometrium breaks down due to the low level of sex hormones in the female body.
Some women suffer from premenstrual syndrome seven to ten days before menstruation starts.
During this time, a woman may have breast enlargement, achiness, and headaches.
The cause of PMS is not known.
During menstruation, arteries that supply the lining weaken.
Blood spilling from the damaged vessels detaches layers of the lining in random patches.
The vagina creates menstrual flow when mucus, blood, and degenerating endometrium descend from the uterus.
Menstruation lasts from 3 to 5 days, as the uterus detaches from the thick lining that was 3 weeks in the making.
The ovarian and uterine cycles begin with menarche.
Menorrhea is a condition if menarche does not occur by age 16 or if normal uterine cycles are interrupted for 6 months or more without pregnancy being the cause.
Primary amenorrhea is usually caused by nonfunctional ovaries.
Excess exercise and weight loss can cause secondary amenorrhea.
When menstruation ceases because the ovaries are no longer functioning, it's time for a woman's life to end.
Periods are absent for a year after menopause is complete.
The embryo travels down the uterus tube and begins development if fertilization occurs.
After fertilization, the embryo becomes embedded in the lining of the endometrium.
Both maternal and embryonic tissues give rise to the placenta.
As soon as 10 days after conception, the mother's blood and urine can be found with the hormone hcg.
There are two effects of progesterone and estrogen.
They keep the lining of the uterus and shut down the anterior pituitary so that there is no new growth.
During pregnancy, there is no menstruation.
Estrogen is essential for the normal development and functioning of the female reproductive organs, as well as for the secondary sex characteristics in females, including body hair and fat distribution.
Females have a more rounded appearance than males because they have more fat under their skin.
The thighs converge at a greater angle toward the knees, and the Pelvis enlarges so that females have wider hips.
Both hormones are required for breast development.
A duct begins at the nipple and divides into many other ducts.
The female breast has ducts and alveoli.
The cells lining the alveoli have been stimulated to produce milk by the hormone prolactin.
The production of prolactin is suppressed by the effects of hormones on the anterior pituitary, so milk is not produced during pregnancy.
After a baby is delivered, milk production begins.
Page milk has less fat and more calories.
Colostrum may provide some degree of immunity to the newborn.
Whole cow's milk has about 500 calories per liter, but human milk has about 750 calories per liter.
Breast cancer is the second most common type of cancer among women in the United States, while skin cancer is the most common.