People have tried to convert matter into more useful forms.
Stone Age ancestors carved wood and flint into statues and toys.
Changing the shape of a substance is one of the endeavors.
Clay was converted into pottery, hides were cured to make garments, copper ores were transformed into weapons, and grain was made into bread.
Humans began to practice chemistry when they were able to control fire and use it to cook, make pottery, and smelt metals.
They began to use specific components of matter.
The drugs were isolated from the plants.
Plants and animals were used to make dyes such as indigo and Tyrian purple.
For example, copper and tin were mixed together to make bronze, and more elaborate techniques were used to make iron.
The soaps were prepared by combining the alkalis with the fats.
The alcohol was produced through two processes.
For more than 2500 years, attempts have been made to understand the behavior of matter.
Greek philosophers discussed a system in which water was the basis of everything.
The Greek states that matter consists of four elements: earth, air, fire, and water.
The spread of chemical technologies from Egypt, China, and the eastern Mediterranean resulted in the creation of "noble metals" like gold, and the cure of disease.
The depiction shows a workshop.
It wasn't scientific to make useful contributions to how to manipulate matter.
Modern chemistry can be traced back to the isolation of drugs from natural sources, metallurgy, and the dye industry.
Our ability to control the behavior of matter is improved by chemistry.
Many people don't realize the importance of chemistry in daily life and the central position of chemistry among the sciences.
Chemistry is sometimes referred to as "the central science" due to its interconnectedness with other fields of study such as technology, engineering, and math.
The basic principles of physics are essential for understanding many aspects of chemistry, and there is extensive overlap between many subdisciplines within the two fields.
Tools such as mathematics, computer science, and information theory can help us calculate, interpret, describe, and generally make sense of the chemical world.
Understanding the many complex factors and processes that keep living organisms alive is crucial to understanding biology and chemistry.
Chemical engineering, materials science, and nanotechnology combine chemical principles and empirical findings to produce useful substances, ranging from gasoline to fabrics to electronics.
Agriculture, food science, veterinary science, and brewing and wine making help provide sustenance in the form of food and drink to the world's population.
Substances that help keep us healthy are identified and produced by medicine, biology, and chemistry.
Environmental science, geology, oceanography, and atmospheric science incorporate many chemical ideas to help us better understand and protect our physical world.
Chemical ideas can be used to understand the universe.
Understanding a wide range of scientific disciplines is dependent on knowledge of chemistry.
Some of the interrelationships between chemistry and other fields are shown in this diagram.
Digesting and assimilating food, refining crude oil into gasoline and other products are just a few examples.
You will discover many different examples of changes in the composition and structure of matter, how to classify them, their causes, the changes in energy that accompany them, and the principles and laws involved.
Whenever someone is involved in changes in matter or in conditions that may lead to such changes, the practice of chemistry is not limited to chemistry books or laboratories.
Observation and experimentation is what chemistry is all about.
Doing chemistry involves trying to answer questions and explain observations in terms of the laws and theories of chemistry, using procedures that are accepted by the scientific community.
There is no single way to answer a question or explain an observation, but each approach uses knowledge from experiments that can be reproduced to verify the results.
Experiments, calculation, and/or comparison with others' experiments are used to test a hypothesis.
Some hypotheses attempt to explain the behavior summarized in the laws.
The status of a theory can be reached if the hypothesis is capable of explaining a large body of experimental data.
If new data becomes available, theories can be changed.
The scientific method is similar to the one shown in the diagram.
The components are shown in chronological order.
Scientific progress is not always neat and clean: It requires open inquiry and the reworking of questions and ideas in response to findings.
Chemists study and describe the behavior of matter and energy in three different areas.
Different ways of considering and describing chemical behavior are provided by these domains.
This includes the food you eat and the breeze on your face.
The macroscopic domain includes everyday and laboratory chemistry, where we observe and measure physical and chemical properties.
A magnified image ofbacteria can be seen through a microscope.
Viruses are too small to be seen with the naked eye, but when we get a cold, we are reminded of how real they are.
Most of the subjects in chemistry are too small to be seen with standard microscopes and must be pictured in the mind.
The components of the microscopic domain are too small to see.
The individual metal atoms in a wire, the ion that composes a salt crystal, the changes in individual molecules that result in a color change, and the evolution of heat as bonds that atoms hold together are included in this domain.
Chemical symbols, chemical formulas, and chemical equations are part of the symbolic domain, as are graphs and drawings.
The symbolic domain can include calculations.
The symbols help interpret the behavior of the macroscopic domain in terms of the components of the microscopic domain.
The use of a domain that must be imagined to explain behavior in a domain that can be observed is one of the features that makes chemistry fascinating.
The essential and ubiquitous substance of water is a helpful way to understand the three domains.
macroscopic observations include that water is a liquid at moderate temperatures, that it will freeze to form a solid at lower temperatures, and that it will boil to form a gas at higher temperatures.
We can't see the properties of water with the naked eye.
The description of water as consisting of two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom, and the explanation of freezing and boiling in terms of attractions between these molecule, is within the microscopic arena.
The symbolic domain is an example of the formula H2O, which can describe water at either the macroscopic or microscopic levels.
Clouds are made of either small liquid water droplets or solid water crystals, which are not visible to the naked eye.