We have learned throughout the text that a correlation between two variables doesn't mean that one causes the other.
This logical fallacy can be particularly tempting when it comes to development.
It's easy to assume that things happen early in development.
For example, if we learned that children who are shy are more likely to become engineers as adults, we could easily imagine arguments for how shyness might lead to interests in engineering.
Imagine that most of the killers drank milk when they were children.
It wouldn't make sense to conclude that milk drinking creates mass murderers.
Many factors could have influenced both behaviors, so we wouldn't have grounds for an inference.
Human development is a two-way street.
Children's experiences have an influence on what they experience.
Longitudinal designs show how parents influence their children's behavior, which in turn affects the same groups of people over time.
Children play an increasingly active role in selecting the way up through age 56.
Parents fight with each other.
It's likely that it caused that event in each of the explanations.
They only tell part of the story.
There are two heads in psychology, not one.
The human body takes shape before birth, as does the ability to perform coordinated movements.
Learning, memory, and even preferences, for certain sounds or body positions, are also under way in unborn infants.
The brain undergoes radical changes throughout the life span, shaping the range of behaviors exhibited across development.
An egg travels through the fallopian tube to the uterus after being fertilized by a sperm cell.
Cells begin to divide and duplicate as it travels.
The blastocyst is in the uterus by the sixth day.
Adapted from Marieb and Hoehn.
The cells begin to differentiate in the middle of the second week as the organs of the body begin to develop.
Fetal development can go wrong during this stage.
When the embryo doesn't form properly, limbs, miscarriages, facial features, and major organs can occur without the mother knowing.
The major organs are established by the ninth week.
The fetus has a job for the rest of the pregnancy.
This phase of development is more about fleshing out what's already there than building new structures.
18 days after fertilization, the human brain begins to develop.
Unlike most organs, which are formed by birth and grow only in size, our brains are formed well into adolescence and even early adulthood.
The earliest stage of cell division for the fetus is 888-609- 888-609- 888-609- 888-609- 888-609- 888-609-
As an infant, the fetus will need less neurons than it will need as a fetus.
The brain must organize them to perform coordinated functions in addition to producing all of these cells.
The migration of cells begins in the fourth month and continues throughout the rest of the year.
Neurons move to their final positions in the brain's structures, such as the hippocampus and the cerebellum.
Fetal development can be disrupted by a number of factors, including premature birth, low birth weight, exposure to hazardous environmental influences, and errors in cell division.
A full-term baby is born after 40 weeks of pregnancy, which is closer to 9 1/2 months than 9 months.
Premature infants are those born before 36 weeks.
Fetals as young as 22 weeks have survived, but only with serious physical and cognitive impairments.
Fetal brains are often unable to engage in basic functions such as breathing and maintaining a healthy body temperature due to the long tube oped lungs.
They experience delays in cognitive and physical development.
The odds of fetal survival increase and the odds of developmental disorders decrease with each week of pregnancy.
There are many premature babies who are otherwise healthy.
Those born later than 32 weeks' gestation will suffer few long-term consequences.
Premature babies don't weigh as much as full-term infants because they don't have the time to bulk up.
Some babies are carried for 40 weeks but still have a low birth weight.
A low-birth-weight baby is defined as less than 5 1/2 pounds for a full-term baby.
Low birth weight is associated with a high risk of death, infections, developmental delays, and even psychological disorders such as depression and anxiety.
It is not known how many of these associations are due to low birth weight.
Babies with low birth weights are more likely to be born to single moms, to young moms, to women with lower education levels and less financial resources.
It is believed that low birth weight can be minimized by providing more access to healthcare for expectant mothers.
Most women don't realize they're pregnant until after the baby's brain and body are developed.
Drugs, alcohol, chicken pox, and X-rays are some of the things they exert a negative impact on.
Smoking while pregnant can cause learning disabilities and physical growth issues.
Smoking cigarettes, marijuana or retardation, facial malformations, and using other recreational drugs while pregnant are more likely to cause behavioral disorders low-birth-weight babies.
Fetal development can be adversely affected by mental health factors in the mother.
Maternal stress can have adverse effects on the development of the fetus.
There is a dilemma for expecting mothers who are taking antidepressants.
Women who are pregnant will stop taking their medication because most psychologists assume that the drugs have teratogenic effects.
The return of depression symptoms puts the fetus at risk.
In these cases, women and their healthcare providers have to decide which will have the least adverse effects on the baby.
Depending on which teratogen and when the embryo or fetus is exposed to it, certain parts of the brain can be affected.
Other teratogens have a bigger impact on brain development.
The brain is vulnerable to teratogens because it has a long period of maturation.
Random errors in cell division and genetic disorders are some of the adverse influences on fetal development.
A single cell, including the egg or sperm cell prior to fertilization, can be copied with some error or break in the genetic material.
Like a page with a smudge that keeps being photocopied, these cells replicate with the error retained, resulting in impaired development of organs or organ systems.
Some of the disorders that can result from a number ofIrregularities include birthmarks, intellectual disability, and disorders that prevent blood clotting.
Babies begin to learn how to use their bodies through movement at birth.
Even at birth, some aspects of motor coordination are obvious.
Specific types of stimulation are what triggered them.
If we put something in a baby's mouth, try it.
If we softly stroke a hungry infant's cheek, she'll automatically turn her head toward our hand and begin casting about with her mouth, eagerly seeking a nipple to suck.
Babies might starve if they had to learn through trial and error that sucking on an object gives them food.
Each major motor milestone requires an entirely new set of motor coordination skills for children of different ages.
For example, cruising, walking, and running look the same, but require different muscle groups and shifts in weight to accomplish movement.
Learning to get up and go for a couple of years.
Babies can only learn other motor behaviors through trial and error.
Sitting up, bodily motion that occurs as a result crawling, standing unsupported, and walking are some of the major motor milestones during development.
The physical adjustments that control our body's positioning and the direction and speed of our movements are incredibly complex, and we take for granted how easy it is to reach for a cup of coffee sitting on a table.
Babies don't yet know how to perform the calculations needed for good hand-eye coordination and motor planning.
Crawling and walking involve coordination of all four limbs, as well as keeping track of where the baby is going.
Crawls are good at navigating their way down the slopes.
There is a wide range in the rate and manner in which children achieve motor milestones.
Some crawl and walk much earlier than others, and a few skip the crawling stage entirely.
The findings suggest that the skills don't necessarily build on each other, as the post hoc fallacy might lead us to believe.
All children acquire motor milestones in the same order.
The brain and the body play a key role in allowing children to become more flexible in their movements.
Many cultural parenting practices are activated in response to stimuli.
Crawling extreme to those from other cultures is one of the motor achievements.
Babies who are swaddled throughout their first rate at which motor development unfolds are different from babies who are not.
Early physical development is limited byavier year.
Thelen and practices have an influence on the rate of motor Ulrich.
There is variability in the timing of developmental milestones.
Babies are swaddled in blankets that provide warmth and a sense of security but prevent free movement of their limbs in China and Peru.
Babies who are swaddled over the first year of life tend to cry less and sleep better.
African and West Indian mothers engage in a variety of stretching, massage, and strength-building exercises with their infants.
Babies' motor development is sped up by this practice, which looks harmful to American eyes.
Even things as basic as cloth or disposable diapers, which are prevalent only in industrialized societies, slow down walking.
If you can, speak to a person who raised you when you were a baby and have him or her describe your motor development.
Our bodies change a lot during childhood and adolescence.
An infant with no apparent neck, a head almost half the size of his torso, and arms that don't even reach the top of his head, has been carefully inspected.
Babies have to relearn how to handle slopes and stairs once they start walking.
Walking uses different types of motor coordination than crawling, but it also changes their perspective and how the baby's body takes up space as she moves.
Human Development 372 body are not the same as at birth.
The absolute size of the head continues to increase with development, but it grows at a slower pace than the torso or legs.
There are many examples of popular and limbs across the life span when scaled to the same overall height.
The size of the head affects psychology wisdom.
Growth spurts are not fake.
The relative length of Michael Hermanussen's legs increases dramatically.
A study found that infants' growth occurs more suddenly.
There are spurts, but they aren't marked by a complete absence of growth.
The timing of growth spurts is 5 mos.
Although the direction of causality between sleep and growth isn't clear, infants sleep longer and take more frequent naps during growth periods.
Both sleep and growth are likely to be the result of a third variable.
The teenage years have a transitional period between childhood and adulthood.
Sex hormones are released into the bloodstream by the reproductive system, triggering growth and other physical changes.
People think of androgens, such as testosterone, as male hormones in the teenage years.
Both types of hormones are present in both genders.
Growth of facial and body hair, as well as the achievement of sexual maturation broadening of the shoulders, are promoted by testosterone in boys.
Estradiol has been shown to promote breast growth, uterus and vaginal growth in girls.
In adolescence, boys' muscle strength begins to surpass girls', and boys undergo a variety of changes in lung function and blood circulation.
The differences between boys and girls' athletic ability are explained by the fact that these changes result in greater average physical strength and reproductive organs and genitals endurance in boys than in girls.
The body's insurance plan against allowing girls to become pregnant before their bodies can carry an infant to term and give birth safely is called Menarche.
Increased breast size and broader hips in girls and broader shoulders in boys are some of the changes that are triggered by them.
Girls reach full physical maturity at different ages, so there's variability in when menstruation begins.
Menarche is more closely tied to physical maturity than spermarche because boys don't need to be fully physically mature to bear children.
The reason we see sixth- and seventh-grade girls taller than their male counterparts is because boys often take much longer to mature fully than girls do.
The testicles, penis, and pubic hair are the first signs of sexual maturity in boys.
Boys begin to see facial and body hair later in the day.
The timing of puberty in boys and girls is influenced by genetics; identical twins tend to begin menstruating within a month of each other, whereas fraternal twins average about a year's difference in start.
There are a variety of environmental factors that affect physical and mental health when adolescents reach puberty.
The girl on the right is the tallest of the bunch because she has access to better nutrition and health.
Girls tend to mature earlier and more quickly than boys do.
The girl is more likely to start menstruating earlier if she is close to reaching countries.
Girls in Japan and the United States start menstruating between 12 1/2 and 13 1/2 years of age, whereas girls in her adult height start menstruating between 12 1/2 and 13 1/2 years of age.
Over the past 100 years, the age of menarche in girls has decreased, moving from 15 to 13 years of age on average.
There are signs of puberty in American boys up to 2 years earlier than previously reported for blacks, whites and Hispanics.
The changes are probably due to better nutrition and health care, although other factors, such as increased exposure to hormones fed to livestock, may also contribute.
Although younger onset of puberty has been attributed to positive increases in health, experiencing an especially early menarche (age 11 or younger) appears to have some negative associations.
According to Henrichs and her colleagues, girls who experience early menarche tend to have been exposed to multiple early adversities such as abuse, parental neglect, or exposure to community violence earlier in development.
Cardiovascular disease and cancer are two of the negative longterm health outcomes associated with an early onset of menarche.
It's difficult to say whether the early onset of menarche causes these other Correlation vs. Causation health risks or if it is a marker of predisposition for these negative outcomes.
Most of us reach our physical peaks in our early twenties after reaching full physical and sexual maturation during puberty.
Women reach their peak fertility in middle age.
Americans spend millions of dollars when they are in their 20s and 25s.
As they attempt to stave of a woman becoming pregnant, the likelihood of year on products and gimmicks marketed to make them look younger decreases.
The effects of age on physical appearance can be seen between 30 and 50.
The ance and functioning are facts of life.
As we age, we see a decline in muscle figure and an increase in body fat, which shows how successful women are in becoming pregnant during one year's tone and increase in body fat.
Vision and hearing decline with age.
Our sense of smell becomes less sensitive as we get older.
There is a misconception that menopause is a period of heightened depression.
Men can continue to reproduce well despite the fact that they don't experience menopause.
Maintaining an erection and achieving ejaculation can become a challenge due to age related declines in sperm production and testosterone levels.
Older men are at a higher risk of having children with disorders than women are.
Sex drives are still healthy for most senior citizens despite changes in reproductive equipment.
There are different effects of aging on motor coordination.
Simple motor tasks, such as tapping a finger to a beat, show relatively small declines compared to complex tasks.
Learning to drive a new car is more difficult for elderly adults.
Some people show more age-related decreases than others.
Strength training and increased physical activity may increase life span.
Many of the changes we associate with aging are due to diseases that are related to age, like heart disease and arthritis.
A quick, easy, acti and affordable way to reduce or even reverse the signs of aging is what many people are looking for.
It's difficult to discern which of the various products and procedures are effective.
When a commercial featuring a famous 40-something actress appears, you are sitting with your aunt watching TV.
Her skin is flawless.
A clip of her applying skin cream is shown in the commercial.
The voice-over says that research shows that this product is highly effective at reversing the appearance of wrinkling.
If the product had the same or fewer effects on aging, the claims would have been different.
Over time, we have found gradual results for those who stick to the 4.
These findings should be ordered because your aunt is seriously considering placing multiple replications.
Explaining that the results may take time, the commer us to evaluate this claim about the effectiveness of this anti-aging cial avoids exaggerated claims.
Consider the six principles of scientific thinking.
You can evaluate this claim with the help of the Razor evant.
The commercial claims that the product works but doesn't offer an explanation for why it works.
The product's apparent study that compares their product to other products is mentioned in the commercial.
It might be a good idea to buy lar ones before purchasing the product.
The double-blind design makes it difficult to explore how and why placebo effects occur.
It's important to find out what the data is about.
In general, this commercial does a good job of making the claims more convincing than other types of information that a consumer would need to be able to make advertisements.
The research was conducted by aReputable institution.
Causation making modest claims about effectiveness is one of the strengths.
The use of randomized experimental ucts is definitely on the right track.
The only design suggests that the effects can be attributed to problematic practice.