The first thing we will do is discuss the geography of agriculture.
We will discuss several revolutions in global agriculture to give a historical perspective on innovations in farming.
There is a section on contemporary issues within specialized agriculture.
There is a detailed presentation at the end of the chapter on von Thunen's Model.
One of the activities that makes up the primary economy is agriculture.
The Demographic Transition Model is connected to agriculture.
In the Third World, agriculture is the primary mode of economic productivity.
In stage two and the Third World, the majority of the population is engaged in agriculture for employment and the majority of the GDP comes from the sale of agricultural products.
The concentration of labor and area of activity for a particular type of farming can be classified.
Hunting and gathering societies produced the earliest forms of agriculture.
These peoples traveled the land to areas with plentiful food and water.
The concept of transhumance is when groups move during the year to avoid harsh climates, but also to follow animal herds and walk to areas where native plants were in fruit.
Stage one of the Demographic Transition Model is associated with this activity.
Hunting led to the live capture and domestication of animals such as cattle, horses, pigs, donkeys, sheep, goats, reindeer, llamas, and water buffaloes.
These herd animals could be used as draft animals to carry loads or plow fields.
Chicken, turkey, guinea hen, duck, goose, and pigeon were some of the birds that were captured, domesticated, and kept for meat and eggs.
The seasonal movement of animals from winter to summer pastures is what led to pastoralism.
In this practice whole communities would drive their herds from one area to another following an annual cycle.
Domestication of dogs helps in protecting livestock.
Several human shepherds can be replaced by a few border collies.
Fruits and grains can be Harvested from wild plants and trees.
The seeds of these plants could be replanted to provide food during transit.
People learned to domesticate and grow more plants, which led to more permanent and organized farm settlements.
There were a variety of crops added to these early farms.
People used plants for food and used plant fibers to make clothing.
The section First Agricultural Revolution deals with plant and animal domestication.
The multi-cropping approach was more secure than single-crop monoculture.
A backup food supply would be provided if one crop failed or was damaged by pests.
In the era of early political civilization and empires, farms produced a staple crop in large quantities in order to feed everyone.
Grain staple crops, like wheat, can be dried and preserved.
They could be kept in dry storage for many months before being cooked or ground into flour to make bread.
Mixed farming occurs when early crop farmers add domesticated animals to their holdings.
This is also referred to as general farming, where multiple crops and animals exist on a single farm to provide a variety of non-food items such as bone for tools and leather for different materials such as saddles, rope, and coats.
In subsistence agriculture, intensive mixed farming provides all of the food and material needs of a household.
A single farm can produce staple grain crops, fruits, and vegetables along with meat, eggs, milk, wool, and leather, having animals pull plows during planting and loads during harvest.
All of the household's needs could be met on the farm.
It allows people to live permanently without having to migrate.
When most of the farm's production is focused on staple crops to pay taxes or fulfill government quota, other plants and animals are grown to fulfill the needs of the farming family.
There are low amounts of labor inputs per unit of land.
It is more likely to occur in less populated regions such as South America or in less hospitable areas such as Siberia, where pastoralism is common.
Most of the time, subsistence agriculture is done on small plots of land.
The number of people per unit of arable land in the Third World is very high compared to the First World.
More people have to be fed off of less land in the Third World.
Many rural communities are more vulnerable to famine because of this.
Subsistence practices require farmers to have innate knowledge of plants, animals, soils, and climate and the ability to preserve foods for long-term consumption and times of need.
Food preservation has been a necessity for survival for thousands of years.
Many cultural variations in food consumption have been caused by it.
Many specialized crops were grown for immediate consumption and preservation.
In Korea, cabbages were buried in clay storage jars to make kimchi, which is a dish made from cabbage and red pepper.
Cucumbers were grown in Eastern Europe and preserved in either lime or salt water.
Drying, smoking, sugar-curing, and salting are some of the methods used to preserve meat.
Don't forget that we have had fridges for the last hundred years.
People learned that certain foods lead to better health.
They didn't know the science of nutrition.
People didn't know that sauerkraut and kimchi are important sources of vitamins C and E. Imagine what it was like back in the day when it was harder to get vitamins.
In stages one and two of the Demographic Transition Model, people with poor nutrition have lower life expectancies.
Cash-cropping is the opposite of intensive farming.
In extensive agriculture, crops are exchanged for currency, goods, or credit.
The credit can be used to buy equipment or seed for the next planting season, as well as to buy food, clothing, and other necessities for the farm family.
Commercial crops are transported and sold at other markets before being preserved or processed into other goods.
Large-scale corporate operations also engage in non-subsistence farming.
Farming under communism was done on a non-subsistence basis, with most of the food grown being distributed across the country.
In the tropical and sub-tropical climates of the world, it is common to find extensive plantation agriculture, specialized crops intended for both domestic consumption and export to other parts of the world.
Historically, slave labor was used on these plantations in the United States until 1865.
In Third World locations, tropical plantation export crops are still found.
They still serve the same purpose as before, to export value from large-scale monoculture.
The economic value of these crops can be significant for their countries.
One year of fluctuations in commodity prices can make these goods highly profitable and unprofitable the next.
Plantation production can be risky as a form of monoculture.
Diversification of the types of crops grown for export has led to attempts to reduce the potential for national economic downturns due to losses from a single crop.
Cotton and tobacco were plantation crops in the United States that were sold domestically and for export.
In the 20th century, these were replaced by other crops such as peanuts and yellow pine trees.
Cotton production in the South was damaged by the weevils.
Most of the cotton in the United States is grown in California.
Tobacco production was cut back in the 1990s after state attorneys general pointed out the health dangers of smoking.
Like other family-owned farms in the United States, old plantations are dying in the face of large corporate farms.
Most of the arable land was owned by wealthy landholders in feudal political economies.
Around 5 percent of the population were made up of these people.
Up to 90 percent of the population were peasants, serfs, and sometimes slaves who farmed land that they never owned.
Peasants were forced to pay rent to farm land that supported their families and produced goods.
The system that created a large income disparity between rich and poor was rejected by both the American and French revolutions.
The peasants in Eastern Europe staged uprisings in the late 1800s that called for a rejection of aristocracy and landlords, as well as the whole capitalist system.
The Russian Revolution in 1917 had a number of political and military causes, as well as a crisis of poverty in many rural Russian farming communities.
Under the Marxist-Socialist political economy, the collectivization of farms and elimination of privately owned land was the solution.
Several families were organized as labor units on large farms.
The land was owned by the whole state.
After World War II, similar collectives were established in Eastern Europe, China, and other Soviet satellites.
The collectivization of agricultural production led to food shortages due to disorganized production networks.
Farming communes began to produce crop yields similar to those in capitalist economies over time.
Each farm was assigned a quota by the government.
Government reprisals and penalties were met with celebrations and awards after falling short of the quota.
The main problem with this system was that there were no incentives to produce over the quota or produce other crops or products outside the mandated crop, which encouraged monoculture.
The system had no surplus food or variety for consumers to choose from.
Stores and food shops had limited supplies of basic food products, and lines often formed in front of stores for items like bread and toilet paper.
Fruits and summer vegetables were rare.
Heavy food demands of the Soviet military caused the lack of surplus.
Food had to be moved from other areas to cause shortages.
The downfall of Soviet Communism was caused by these and other problems.
Chapter 6 contains more on this subject.
Human ecology is a description of human interactions with nature.
The "man to land relationship" was the focus of earlier geographic research.
The term human ecology has fallen out of favor, and the broader term human-environment interactions is more commonly used to describe a variety of activities.
Our ecological relationship to the land can be seen as a food web in which each type of crop and animal is dependent on a number of human inputs, soil and climate conditions.
The term food chain is used to describe the order of predator in the animal world and is also used to describe several integrated human and mechanical inputs, from seeds to planting, fertilization, harvesting, processing, packaging, and transporting food to market and finally to your dinner plate.
Specific farming practices are what you need to know for the exam.
Key words in relation to farming practices are provided in the following section.
Crop rotation happens when one crop is planted on a plot of land and another crop is planted in subsequent years.
The rotation cycle can be affected by one or more factors.
Nitrogen quality is a factor in farming.
Corn requires artificial fertilization to maintain its soil quality.
The roots of soy plants emit nitrogen back into the soil.
Farmers can save money by rotating between corn and soybeans since they won't have to buy as much urea.
The planting of more than one crop on the same plot of land is called multi-cropping.
In contrast to monoculture, this is an intensive strategy in which crops are either planted together simultaneously or when one crop is planted right after another in the same row.
Winter vegetables can be planted and harvest before the freeze if you wait after the summer vegetables are done.
Double cropping means planting two crops one after another on a single plot in a year, and triple cropping means three crops in the same year.
In dry-land areas such as Southern California's Imperial Valley, these practices often rely on irrigation.
The general rule of thumb is to plant in the spring, grow in the summer and harvest in the fall.
Spring wheat and winter wheat have variations.
The growing season for spring wheat is normal.
It is planted in the spring and harvests in the summer.
In northern areas, spring wheat is grown.
Winter wheat is grown in more southern areas of the Great Plains, where ground freezing is less likely.
Winter wheat is planted in the fall and grows in the spring to be harvest in the summer.
In the United States, Kansas, Oklahoma, and Colorado make up most of the winter wheat production.
The practice of irrigation opens up a lot of land in arid climates.
Up to 90 percent of freshwater use in the most impoverished countries of the world can be attributed to irrigation agriculture.
Governments often subsidize irrigation agriculture with the result that the crops produced are not worth as much as the water.
The Nile Valley in Egypt is heavily subsidized.
The water for these irrigation farms comes from underground water tables.
Large-scale grain-production countries such as India, China, and the United States are being affected by the rapid decline of the aquifers.
Farming practices can be criticized for their dependence on external inputs such as fuel, agricultural chemicals, and pesticides, as well as the effects of farming on soil erosion and local water usage.
A new movement has grown and spread to conserve and protect the Earth's resources as soils and water become less valuable.
The practice of preserving and managing the environment is called conservativism.
A new method of farming, conserve agriculture, has become more important as a way of providing a sustainable farming system without sacrificing crop production.
One of the methods used is not plowing the soil in order to reduce soil erosion and increase soil fertility.
Crop rotation and inter-planting are two methods used to increase soil fertility.
Inter-planting means planting fast-growing crops.
The farmer can harvest the fast-growing crop before the slow-growing one.
A sustainable yield is the amount of crops or animals that can be raised without endangering local resources, or it is the amount of crops or animals that can be raised without too many expensive inputs that would make farming unprofitable.
In both environmental and economic terms, sustainable practices can be seen.
Farmers can reduce the risk of long-term environmental or economic problems by using sound farming practices.
A number of crops are raised for industrial use and animal feed, but not all agriculture is done to create human food.
Cotton and flax have been used for a long time to make cloth and linens.
Since the 1950s, soy has been used to make paints, ink, and synthetic materials.
The parts of animals that are not eaten are used to make products like leather, soaps, and organic fertilizers.
Oil prices have increased over time and alternative energy crops have become important.
Corn has been used to make alcohol that can be used to make gasoline and make it burn cleaner.
In the last few years, demand for alternative vehicle fuels has opened markets for corn-based E85 fuel to replace gasoline and be used in "flex-fuel" vehicles.
In Brazil, a large percentage of cars run on sugar cane-derived alcohol fuels that have reduced the country's dependence on oil imports.
In the United States, Canada, and Europe, biodiesel from vegetable oils has become an alternative to diesel fuel.
In the Third World, farming occurs in areas that are sensitive to the environment.
Slash and burn agriculture, also known as swidden, has occurred in tropical rainforest regions with farmers shifting from one plot of land to another every few years.
Natural vegetation would return and increase the nutrition of the area if the land was allowed to fallow.
The population explosion of the 20th century made this cycle of cutting and fallowing sustainable because of the small number of active areas.
The large amount of forest land burned makes slash and burn unsustainable.
Contrary to popular belief, rainforest soils are very poor due to the water and nutrients in the environment being taken up by the natural vegetation.
When rainforest is cut, large trees are sold to logging companies and the remaining vegetation is burned to create a layer of ash atop the soil.
People who have moved to the forest to claim their own land and escape overcrowded cities in countries like Brazil or Indonesia often discover that they can only farm for a short time before the soil is damaged by heavy tropical rains.
The forest settlers have to sell their farm to cattle ranchers in order to continue the cycle.
The problem is that tens of thousands of farm families are now doing this, which puts dangerous pressure on a very sensitive and valuable natural resource.
The lungs of the Earth are often found in the rainforests because of the large amounts of oxygen produced and CO 2 consumed by trees.
In arid parts of the world, such as Africa, the Middle East, and Central Asia, the shifting of animal herds between pastures is still popular.
The contemporary problem is similar to rainforest destruction because too many people and animals are putting too much pressure on the land.
Significant amounts of dry grassland have been denuded and eroded as a result of overgrazing.
Desertification is the process of turning a vegetated environment into a desert-like landscape.
Deforestation and soil salinization can lead to desertification.
The risk of farming in dryland and desert regions is that the water can trap mineral salts on the surface soil layer.
High daytime temperatures draw water out of farmland.
The amount of mineral salt can build to toxic levels if it continues to evaporate.
The land needs to be either abandoned or flooded in a couple of months to draw out the salts.
In these dry areas, fresh water is expensive and in short supply.
The amount of labor needed to produce goods is often reduced by using new farming methods.
The revolutions did not happen at the same time.
The changes happened in different places.
revolutions began in one place and spread around the world over time, sometimes an innovation could take many decades before being adopted elsewhere The Bushmen of the Kalahari in Southern Africa are one of the few hunting and gathering societies that are still alive today.
People transitioned to an organized form of farming after thousands of years of hunting, gathering, and fishing.
The theory of early farming is that the shoots, stems, and roots of existing wild plants were collected and grown together.
This became seed agriculture, where the fertilized seed grains and fruits of plants were collected and replanted together.
Early farmers took seeds and plants from the more productive plants to grow future generations.
This is how the domestication of plants took place.
Plants that thrived in different climates were cultivated in early forms of horticulture.
Different sizes, colors, flavors, foliage, and fruit were selected for specific varietals.
The regions of agriculture emerged where certain crops were grown under optimal conditions for the specific cultural tastes of the area's inhabitants.
The areas where most of the early agricultural activity took place are called hearths of domestication, which are located in or around the ancient culture.
Different times in history, animal domestication took place in different areas.
Wild breeds were first taken captive.
Interbred or hybridized were the most productive of these.
Specific climates and natural conditions allowed animal hybrid to thrive.
As domesticated varieties were traded and spread across the landscape, the growing areas of crops and livestock expanded.
There were limits to the spread.
Plants grow in different habitats.
The growing areas are usually defined by the amount of rain and temperature.
The growing season of many vegetables and fruits is limited by periods of freezing.
There were cultural limits to crops and animals that did not correspond to the tastes of certain societies.
The early farms were mostly for the benefit of the family or the local community.
The vast majority of the world's population lived in rural areas and depended on local crop production to survive.
This type of farming was more labor intensive than the commercial farming of today.
In stages one and two of the Demographic Transition Model, when birth rates are high, children are seen as additional farm labor.
The larger the herd or area of land that could be farmed, the more labor that could be done.
You need to know about an important historical event in the history of agriculture for the AP Human geography exam.
A number of domesticated New World crops made their way to the rest of the world after the conquest of mainland Central and South America in the early 1500s.
After the voyages of Christopher Columbus, we call it the Columbian exchange.
Animals were mostly in the opposite direction of plants during this time.
The Old World animals traveled to the New World.
Explorers brought plants back with them from the New World.
Parallel innovations in manufacturing enabled technological changes in agriculture from the beginning of the Industrial Revolution.
The use of devices such as Whitney's cotton gin in 1793 and the McCormick reaper in the 1830s greatly reduced labor requirements and increased farm production.
The development of specialized hybrid, artificial chemical fertilization, early chemical pesticides, and mechanization in the form of trucks, tractors, and pumps took place in the late 1800s to early 1900s.
The internal combustion engine was used to drive the tractor in the early 1900s.
They were used to plow, plant, fertilize, and harvest crops and they eliminated the need for large numbers of farm laborers.
Combine harvesters that remove cobs or grains from plant stalks, mechanical hay balers, and a number of mechanized food processing devices made vast improvements in crop yields for farmers through labor reduction.
The global population has grown from two billion to six billion in a hundred years thanks to agricultural chemicals, hybridization, and large-scale highly mechanized farms around the world.
Modern science has had a role to play in chemistry and horticulture.
Scientific horticulture uses laboratory techniques to develop plant and animal hybrid that grow larger or under certain conditions to meet the needs of farmers in different regions.
Plants with dwarf varieties were an important innovation.
Shorter breeds of wheat and rice were found to be hardier and more productive because the plant spent less time and energy growing a stalk, resulting in more and larger grains on each head.
Chemists in Germany were the first to make synthetic pesticides.
In 1909, Ammonium nitrate was mass-produced to replace lost nitrogen in soils for corn and wheat farming.
During the 1840s and early 1900s, pesticides were developed from natural sources and synthetic chemicals.
Rodenticides, which cause huge amounts of crop damage, and nematocides, which kill harmful worms, are included.
The technical innovations led to larger farms.
The Demographic Transition Model is used in Europe and North America.
Rapid rural-to-urban migration took place in the 1800s and early 1900s.
Manufacturing job opportunities increased as work opportunities in agriculture were eliminated.
These innovations took a long time to reach the Third World.
The technical innovations in farming that took place in Europe and North America in the 1800s and early 1900s did not spread to most of the Third World until after World War II.
Tropical plant and animal hybrid and chemical fertilizers and pesticides were used in Third-World agriculture in the 1950s and 1960s.
The high cost of large-scale farm equipment and the small-scale farm plots that are still maintained by hand labor have slowed the spread of mechanized agriculture.
Irrigation pumps that can be purchased at low cost can be used to move water to dryland farming regions.
The impact of the Green Revolution on the Third World has made for more crop production on small plots of land.
The expansion of populations in Third-World countries has been enabled by the technology transfer from First to Third World.
Without expanded food production, the rapidly growing populations in the post-World War II developing world would have led to disastrous global food shortages, as opposed to the periodic regional famines that occur within some countries.
The growth and development of the Third World has been aided by the Green Revolution.
Environmental damage has been done by some modernized practices.
Water supplies have been contaminated by pesticides and other chemicals.
If plots of land are not carefully managed, much of the expanded agriculture in Third World countries will result in a loss of biodiversity and soil degradation.
Many small farmers are in debt because of the rising cost of seeds, equipment, and chemicals.
An example of a Third-World innovation is the hybrid of European and Indian cattle called the Brahman cattle.
The beef cow produces more meat than other tropical cows.
The heritage of the Zebu allows it to thrive in higher temperatures and humidity, which can lead to illness in European cattle breeds.
Many warmer regions of the world, including Africa, South Asia, and even south Texas, where they compete economically with the prized Texas longhorns, have arisen as a result of this.
The start of a more inclusive way of farming was marked by the Third Agricultural Revolution.
Modern commercial agriculture is more than just growing a few crops.
Farmers now produce one or more crops, process the crop, and advertise and market it through a farmer's co-op or other market.
The first important fact about the Third Agricultural Revolution is this broader economic activity.
The second hallmark of modern commercial agriculture is the use of larger, more powerful agricultural machinery.
After World War II, the use of more powerful equipment began to replace man and beast in Europe.
The Green Revolution, which began in the 1940s with the arrival of agricultural scientists in Mexico to export wheat-growing technology, was only one part of the Third Agricultural Revolution.
Farmers in other regions of the world were able to increase crop yields thanks to higher-yield hybrid seeds.
The Green Revolution technologies benefited the most from the staple grains of wheat and rice.
Genetic engineering has increased the possibilities and productivity of global agriculture.
Vaccines, antibiotics, and growth hormones have been developed that have reduced farm animal mortality and increased the yields of meat, eggs, and other materials.
Industrial agriculture, also known as factory farming, is enabled by these factors.
There is a significant example of genetic engineering.
Different varieties of corn have been genetically modified to be pest-resistant, thanks to the genes from the bacterium that produces toxins deadly to certain insects and fungi.
The environmental benefits of this are due to the reduced need for spraying chemical pesticides.
The seeds to grow corn are more expensive than regular seeds, but the fact that farmers don't have to pay for spraying means there are potentially higher profits.
Meat and milk productivity has been impacted by the use of technology.
In the United States and other countries, rBGH is used in the production of beef and milk.
Synthetic hormones mimic the growth-stimulating hormones produced by a cow's pituitary glands.
Cattle grow bigger and cows produce more milk.
An investment in these drugs can increase meat and milk yields and increase farm profitability.
Large indoor egg farming operations have been made possible by the combination of genetically modified chicken breeds, bird growth hormones, and antibiotics.
There are several hundred thousand hens in some egg-production facilities.
Egg producers claim that this is a safe and economical way to produce eggs.
Eggs are more than just for scrambling in the morning.
There are egg powders in everything from cake mix to baby formula.
The global demand for egg products is increasing.
Corn, soybeans, and wheat are staple crops in Anglo-America.
The family-owned farm is becoming a thing of the past as corporate ownership of farms is the norm.
Small-scale farms have been pushed out of business due to the low commodity prices of crops and animals.
Consumer resistance to genetic engineering has been significant.
The rise of agribusiness has opened the door for some highly specialized or organic small farms.
The organization of farming has changed due to modern commercial agriculture.
Corporate agriculture, or agribusiness, is where large-scale extensive farms of several thousand acres or several thousand animals are controlled by a single regional business.
Large multinational corporations, including seed and agricultural chemical companies, purchase hundreds of thousands of acres that are leased to local contractors who use the company's seed or chemicals to produce crops.
With crop prices at historical lows, one of the few ways to continue farming low-price staple crops like corn, soybeans, and wheat is to consolidate smaller farms under one company to spread costs and create profitability through volume.
Corporate agribusiness has significant political power in Midwestern states and prairie provinces, even though agriculture is only 3 percent of the United States and Canadian GDP.
Many of these companies get the same tax breaks, low-cost loans, and government subsidies as family farmers do.
Monsanto, the largest privately owned company in the United States, and other firms lobby the government to keep programs that subsidize their business.
agribusinesses have become more dependent on factory farms to keep costs down Similar to the earlier egg farm example, beef cattle, pigs, and poultry are grown in large, densely packed facilities where thousands of food animals are bred, grown, and slaughtered in the same location.
Large houses with automated feeding and building-cleaning systems are where poultry are raised.
In large, automated indoor facilities where cow health is monitored, dairy cattle are milked two to three times daily.
The hogs can end up in large feedlots if they are raised in indoor facilities.
Most beef cattle are kept for all or part of their lives in large outdoor feedlots which have no natural vegetation.
Feed is either dumped from trucks or sent through pipes.
Once the cattle are fattened, they are shipped at night to slaughters.
Feedlot operations rely on antibiotics to keep their animals healthy.
There are cattle that can't be used for human consumption that can end up in pet food or animal feed.
Low crop prices and low profitability, increasing fuel costs, and competition from big agribusiness firms have made farming very difficult for the traditional small-scale family farm.
In the 1970s, the United States and Canadian governments extended a lot of low-interest loans, price supports, and other subsidy programs to aid farmers who had significant political influence in agricultural states and provinces.
Without the public supply of credit to buy seed, chemicals, and equipment at the start of planting seasons, farms would have shut down.
The government had to step in as a lender of last resort because most banks saw farms as risky.
If the government hadn't helped farmers, there would have been a lot of price swings in food and fuel in the 70s.
Many farms' mortgages were foreclosed due to the farmers' inability to make money as a result of low commodity prices for crops.
During the 1980s and 1990s, agribusiness consolidated many farms into larger holdings.
Many people left the farm communities to find a new life in other parts of the country.
If you wanted to survive the farm crisis in rural areas, there were a few options: start farming as a contractor for agribusiness, buy out other farmers, or stick with your current farm and get into specialized farm products.
The increased industrialization of farming has created an opportunity for farmers who are willing to give up the technological advancement of the Second and Third Agricultural Revolutions, or willing to switch to alternative and nontraditional crops.
Many of the farming practices used by agribusiness and other farmers have been rejected by the public and consumers because they are resistant to genetically modified organisms, skeptics of artificial hormones, and are concerned about animal welfare.
A large market for so-called natural food products has emerged, and many small family farms have restructured their operations to meet the rapidly increasing demand for such products.
Farmers can certify their products as non-GMO if they raise crops or animals that are not genetically engineered.
This can bring a premium price for natural foods in the United States and Canada.
The European Union requires a label warning consumers of the product's contents.
All other products do not have special labels.
Many consumers have health concerns about genetically modified organisms, but there is no evidence that they cause harm to humans.
Many people worry that genetically modified plants and animals could cause long-term harm to the environment.
North America's only third-party verification and labeling for non-GMO food and products is offered by the Non-GMO Project.
In most places, including the United States and Canada, to be labeled organic, crops and animals must not be grown using genetic engineering, must be free of pesticides, antibiotics, and synthetic hormones, and must feed on completely organic crops.
Since it is more costly to grow crops and animals without artificial inputs, the organic label brings even higher prices.
A gallon of regular milk in a grocery store costs between $2.75 and $3.40, whereas a gallon of organic milk in the same store can cost anywhere from $5.80 to $7.50.
Compared to traditional dairies, small family dairy farms can make far more money per cow.
Due to the lack of artificial chemicals, organic farming is seen as a much more sustainable form of farming.
Consumers in the U.S. demand poultry, meat, and cheeses that are designated as such.
Despite the fact that many older and less commercially known varieties exist, only a few commercial varieties are available to consumers.
Russet apples, black Russian tomatoes, blue corn, and fingerling potatoes can be found in farmers' markets and specialty food stores where consumers are willing to pay four to five times more for heirlooms than standard commercial varieties.
During the summer months, Silver Queen corn is widely sold in regular grocery stores.
Concerns over animal welfare and loss of flavor in agribusiness-produced meats and eggs have led to increased consumer demand for free-range poultry, eggs, and beef.
Farmers must have open pastures or large outdoor poultry pens if they want to attain this designation.
Consumers who have ethical positions against factory farming are attracted to free-range labels.
Animals can still eat feeds from non-organic sources.
Grass-fed cattle have brought higher prices to gourmet consumers who seek the more natural-tasting beef, as corn- and soy-based cattle feed has been blamed for less flavor.
Concerns have been raised that even cattle feeds labeled as organic can have supplements made from other animals.
Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE), also known as Mad Cow Disease, is a disease caused by the breakdown of brain and nerve tissue from other animals.
Grass-fed animals are not at risk for BSE.
Although lamb, goose, and duck are consumed widely and aren't that "alternative", many small farms have expanded or switched to these meats since they also produce wool and feather down for clothing and housewares.
Other "exotic" animal products and clothing fibers have become economic options for small-scale specialty farmers.
Examples include bison for low-fat meat and skins, llamas and alpaca as draft animals, goats for meat, milk, and cheeses, and kangaroo for meat and leather to make athletic cleats.
There is increased consumer demand for value-added agricultural products, where food is processed on the farm and more money goes to the farmer.
Wines, specialty cheeses, olive oil and nut oils, fruit and tree syrups, and smoked and dried meats are examples of value-added products.
In dairy farming areas, chocolate has become a cottage industry.
The quality of chocolate is dependent on the milk used.
Chocolates made from non-GMO or organic whole milk can fetch high prices.
The local or regional geographic name for the product is advertised by many value-added products.
Consumers are willing to pay a certain amount for a particular high quality wine from California.
These names are protected so that only products produced in the local area can have the name on the label.
If the grapes are grown and bottled in the Champagne region of France, champagne can be labeled as such.
Imitators must not use the term "Champagne" or "sparkling wine" if they want to avoid being sued by the French government for violating international trade agreements.
If you don't dare label it Parmigiano-Reggiano, you'll face similar litigation.
The area surrounding the city of Parma in Italy is where this type of cheese can be made.
The higher price these place-names bring at the market is the key.
A basic sparkling wine from Spain or California will cost $10 per bottle, while a true French Champagne will cost anywhere from $35 to $180 in stores, and only the true wine snobs can tell the difference.
The domestic price of Parmesan is about $8 per pound, whereas the Italian price is $18 per pound.
The high prices keep French and Italian grape and dairy farmers competitive.
Small farmers can engage in and be profitable in the rapidly growing fish farming industry.
Tila, a South American fish, is being farmed in California and Texas.
These fish are popular because they don't cost much to raise and fetch a high price at the market.
In the Pacific Northwest, New England, and the Maritime Provinces, small-scale oyster and salmon farms are very profitable.
In Washington state and British Columbia, a large species of clam, called ageoducks, are farmed.
The Japanese will pay $25 for a pound of geoducks.
In contrast to staple grain farming of corn, rice, soybeans, and wheat, specialized crops play an important role in the diversity of foods in terms of both farm economy and the cultural specificity of consumers.
Small family farms and commercial farms grow specialized crops that bring more money per acre than basic grain staple crops.
Specialty crops can be produced in large-scale operations on these farms.
Specialty crops grown on truck farms in the eastern United States and Canada are important sources of earnings since industrial dairy production has moved to the upper Midwest.
The old term for agricultural exchange of goods is called a truck.
Tomatoes, lettuce, strawberries, and tree crops are some of the highly profitable crops.
These can be purchased fresh in stores, canned or frozen.
Suitcase farmers have city jobs but still own land in rural areas.
They engage in specialty crop farming for added personal earnings and to keep old family traditions alive.
Specialty crops can be grown year-round in Florida, South Texas, and Southern California.
Along with crops grown in areas of northern Mexico, such as lettuce, tomatoes, broccoli, green beans, and imports from Chile and New Zealand, these keep American and Canadian stores stocked with fruits and vegetables.
In the winter, salad bars have fresh produce, and if you choose, you can pay $4.00 for half a pound of fresh fruit.
The Mediterranean Sea surrounding Africa, Asia, and Europe has a warm, dry climate with short periods of rain in the winter and spring.
The domestication of plants in this region brings value to farmers.
These specialized crops have been adopted by other parts of the world.
These valuable crops are produced in large order for domestic cash crops and export in some regions.
A specialized agricultural activity using goats and buffalo for cheese production can be done with cows.
Milk for drinking, cheese, yogurt, butter, and cream is produced from cow's milk.
The preservation of excess milk for long-term use is one of the major concerns with milk.
Pasteur's development of pasteurization in the 1860s increased the shelf life of milk from a couple of days to up to two weeks.
The area that could be served by dairies was expanded by this development.
The milkshed is the region around a city where fresh milk is delivered without spoiling.
Large cities need multiple large dairies.
Over the last 150 years, the production of cheese and yogurt has moved west.
New England dominated cheese production in the late 1800s and early 1900s.
The need for larger dairy farms and the availability of cheap land has led to large-scale cheese production in parts of the upper Midwest.
Most of the milk produced in New England is sold in jugs and cartons to be sold in nearby urban areas.
Milk is graded based on the amount of fat in it.
The cream has been removed from whole milk.
The cream is sold separately.
Reduced fat milk reduces the risk of heart disease from excess saturated fat and cholesterol consumption.
Skim milk has all of the milk fat removed and is considered the most healthful for humans of a certain age.
Milk fat is used to make butter, and milk solids are used to make glue, cosmetics, and moisturizers.
Milk enriched with fat-soluble vitamins A and D can be added to people's daily diet.
Milk can be mixed in large batches to create a consistent flavor.
Ultra-high temperature pasteurization is a new method of milk preservation.
Milk is Pasteurized at very high temperatures and under pressure to keep the water from turning to steam.
This is stored in a sterile container that is sealed in plastic.
Milk can be kept fresh for up to a year.
UHT milk has a global milkshed.
The Isolated State was written by Von Thunen.
The pattern of agricultural land use surrounding a theoretical European town, village, or city was described in it.
Despite publishing his work in the early industrial period, von Thunen was writing about Europe's agrarian geography.
Land use is determined by how labor intensive the type of farming is.
Crops or animals that require a lot of attention will be close to the town, while the ones that need the least attention will be far away.
The central place model is considered a type of central place model due to the organization of a central marketplace and place of consumption for the agricultural goods produced in the surrounding area.
Fruits, garden vegetables, herbs, and anything that required constant tending or weeding or that needed to be picked for market at a particular time are labor-intensive crops.
Dairy cows and egg- producing poultry are labor intensive.
Milk needs to be near markets to prevent it from being spoiled.
Vegetables and herbs were grown in the town market gardens for local sale.
The energy and lumber needs of the community needed a managed forest.
The trees were located close to town because of their weight and bulk.
The town woods were often replanted in a sustainable manner, allowing them to be used as a local renewable resource.
Less tending is required for labor-extensive crops.
The grain crops commonly grown in von Thunen's Germany require little tending other than planting and harvest.
Corn and grasses are members of the grass family, and grasses tend to dominate their growing environment.
Large plots of land are required to grow staple food crops that are needed in larger quantities than vegetables.
This ring is very wide.
It is the least labor-intensive to grap land.
A single shepherd can tend to over 100 head of beef cattle or sheep.
Since domesticated herding dogs were used to drive herds from pasture to pasture, he was not alone.
Highlands in the peripheral areas are perfect for grazing.
Grain farming required a lot of land.
In this intensive form of pastoralism, animals have to be moved periodically to keep from overgrazing meadow and pastures, which could destroy native grasses and lead to erosion.
Von Thunen's model explains the cost-to-distance relationship in agricultural land use.
The relationship between the value of labor and the distance from the center of the model is an inverse one.
The price of rent paid by peasants to farm a piece of land can be compared to labor costs.
Rent paid on land to produce a specific good is higher for the more labor input required.
Rent and labor inputs make up the majority of the prices for goods in markets.
Fruits and vegetables are more expensive than wheat.
You can draw a line to represent the cost-to-distance relationship for each of the rings if you chart the price of rent for different locations on the model.
The land-rent curve is a mathematical function that shows the changes in rent prices across the model.
As you move toward the town's center, the rents for grain farming and grazing are much higher.
In stage two and Third-World countries, agriculture is the main means of economic productivity.
Farming practices can have a huge impact on the landscape for better or worse.
Poor farming practices can damage the environment, while sustainable farming aims to conserve natural resources.
Humans transitioned from hunting and gathering to organized planting, which led to the domestication of plants and the development of horticulture.
The population boom supported by the expanded agricultural output would have otherwise been unsustainable.
Large-scale farms run by multinational corporations are replacing small family farms as the majority of agriculture today.
Specialty farming products such as non-GMO, organics, heirloom varieties, and free-range and pasture-fed livestock offer small, independent farms a means of staying in business.
The most labor-intensive crops and animals are located closest to the central village in Von Thunen's model.
There are answers and explanations at the end of this chapter.
Intensive agriculture requires a lot of labor input and is focused on a small plot of land.
Extensive agriculture requires limited labor input and is spread across large areas of land.
There are two types of agriculture based on the seasonal movement of animals.
Hunting and gathering is a nomadic form of agriculture in which people move to areas with plentiful food and water.
Desertification can be caused by overgrazing, soil salinization, and extensive pastoralism.
Slash and burn agriculture is related to rainforests and involves the cutting and burning of forest plants to create fields.
Slash and burn agriculture does not lead to desertification.
Crops and livestock were transferred from the Old World to the New World when Central and South America were conquered in the early 1500s.
Choices are examples of things that came to the New World from the Old World.
The only thing introduced to the Old World was peanuts.
During stage one of the Demographic Transition Model, groups of hunters and gatherers moved to avoid cold, escape flooding, and follow animal herds.
The idea behind transhumance is this.
Stage two of the DTM, pastoralism, and subsistence farming are all signs of advanced civilization.
Buddhist spiritual practices are not relevant.
The answer is correct.
The Communist Manifesto was published in the middle of the 19th century.
One of the first Five- Year Plans to be introduced in the Soviet Union was the collectivization of farms.
According to the policies of socialist leaders, it was a way to boost agricultural production through the organization of land and labor into large-scale collective farms.
Stalin argued that collectivization would free poor peasants from economic slavery under the kulaks.
Stalin deported farmers to Siberia in order to implement the plan.
One of the most fertile regions of the world has been destroyed by the centuries-old system of farming.
The price of oil went up a lot.
This put a lot of pressure on communities to find alternative forms of energy.
Brazil's vehicles are powered by a sugar-cane derivative.
vegetable oil is used to make biodiesel.
The smell of a fast-food restaurant is similar to driving behind a biodiesel vehicle.
Fertiliser and pesticides have been around for many decades.
Justus von Liebig promoted the use of ammonia in agriculture as far back as the 1850s, while the first pesticide, DDT, was invented in 1939.
The Second Agricultural Revolution included reduced labor requirements thanks to the invention of trucks, tractors, and pumps.
The correct answer is choice.
Corn-and-soybean monoculture is what the giants of agribusiness do best.
They have the scale that small-scale farmers can only dream of.
Small-scale farmers tend to succeed based on specialty niches, either based on old techniques or new products.
In places where there isn't much labor put into the land, there is extensive subsistence agriculture.
Lack of modern technology, lack of population, and lack of arable land are all to blame.
There are low amounts of labor input in these regions.
The Americas also benefited from the arrival of many European products, which we often associate with the Spanish discovery of the Americas.
For thousands of years,Citrus was grown in the Mediterranean.
Most modern varieties of livestock, including horses, cattle, sheep, goats, and even chickens, arrived for the first time in the New World, as well as all the diseases associated with those animals.
The land closest to the town would require the most work according to von Thunen's model.
Humans don't want to walk any more than necessary.
The proximity to human settlements is a factor in the cost of the product when it arrives to market.