If they are superimposable by rotating one isomer, they are a mirror.
The two structures are not superimposable, so the cis isomer has optical activity.
Determine if the fac or mer isomers are active.
The previous examples show optical isomerism.
If all four coordination sites are occupied by different ligands, the complexes can exhibit optical isomerism.
Square complexes don't usually show optical isomerism as they are superimposable on mirror images.
The bonds in complex ion and coordination compounds can be described by a theory called the valence bond theory.
Crystal field theory is a different model of the ion's magnetic and colors properties.
Both models are examined in this section.
The overlap between a completely filled atomic orbital and an empty atomic orbital is called a coordinate covalent bond.
The filled orbital is on the metal ion while the empty one is on the ligand.
According to the geometry of the complex ion, the metal ion orbitals are hybridized.
A metal ion requires six empty orbitals to form a complex ion.
The exact orbitals needed for this geometry are found in 3 hybrid orbitals.
The coordinate covalent bond is formed by the overlap of the orbitals on the metal ion and on the ligands.
Understand their colors and magnetic properties.
These repulsions are the focus of CFT.
Strong repulsions are caused by the overlap of lignds and orbital lobes.
Weak repulsions are caused by lignds coming in between the orbital lobes.
If it reflects all the light, it appears to be white.
A substance that absorbs green light will appear red.
The green-yellow region of the visible spectrum is absorbed by a solution of [Ti(H2O)6]3+.
Consider the absorption spectrum shown in Figure 26.16(b)V.
The solution is purple.
The ion is blue in the solution.
Estimate the crystal field splitting energy.
The solution is blue, so you can see which wavelength is being absorbed.
Estimate the wavelength absorbed.
You can estimate the average wavelength by looking at the orange's color range.
The complex ion is yellow.
Estimate the crystal field splitting energy for the ion.
The magnitude of the crystal fieldSplitting in a complex ion--and, therefore, whether it is a strong-field or a weak-field complex--depends in large part on the attached ligands to the central metal ion
The metal ion has an effect on the magnitude.
An example of this behavior can be found in the complex ion between NH3 and the oxidation states of cobalt.
The solution of the metal ion complexes is yellow.
The magnetic properties of a transition metal can be affected by the strength of the crystal field.
The lower-energy orbitals fill first when there is a split by ligands.
Once they are half-filled, the next paramagnetic species can either have an electron in one of the lower-energy half-filled electrons or an electron in the other half-filled electron.
The iron(II) complexes can be compared to see the difference in behavior.
The [Fe(CN6)]4 compound is diamagnetic as shown in the accompanying figure.
There are 7 metal ion possibilities.
3 metal ion have unpaired electrons.
The complex should be decided if it is high or configurations.