Bryan was the only one of the twenty largest cities to win.
The Democratic party's shift from pro- business conservatism to its eventual twentieth century role as a party of liberal reform was launched by Bryan.
The Populist party did not survive.
It collected only 50,000 votes in 1900 after winning a million votes in 1896.
The struggle for political control of an industrialized urban America culminated in McKinley's victory.
The Republicans would rule for sixteen years.
When McKinley was inaugurated, prosperity was back.
The Greenbackers and silverites argued that the nation's money supply had been inadequate during the Gilded Age, and that the inflation of U.S. currency was to blame for the economic recovery.
Congress passed a bill in 1900 affirming that the nation's money supply would be based on gold.
The volcanic turmoil of the 1890s set the stage for the twentieth century's struggles and innovations.
Electric elevators and steel frame construction allowed architects to extend buildings upward, and mass transit allowed the middle class to retreat to suburbs.
Their languages, culture, and religion were not the same as those of native Americans.
The popu larity of Wild West shows and the emergence of spectator sports were caused by the growth of large cities.
Corporations bought political influence.
State and local levels were still the focus of political activity.
The major parties were so balanced that they didn't want to offend voters.
The professionalization of federal workers began after the passage of the Pendleton Civil Service Reform Act.
The Sherman Anti- Trust Act, the Sherman Silver Purchase Act, and the McKinley Tariff Act were passed by the Republicans in 1890.
As the economy grew, the money didn't increase.
Many farmers believed that the coinage of silver would result in inflation, which in turn would increase the value of their crops and reduce their debts.
The coinage of silver was adopted by William Bryan, who was nominated by the Democratic party.
William McKinley supported the gold standard.
McKinley appealed to the growing number of city dwellers and industrial workers.
You can see what you've learned and learn what you've missed at InQuizitive.
The United States went through a wave of change in the twentieth century.
Americans were excited and scared that the nation was on the threshold of modernity.
Old truths and beliefs clashed with new discoveries.
People debated the legitimacy of Darwinism, the existence of God, the dangers of jazz, and the federal effort to prohibit the sale of alcoholic beverages.
William McKin ley was the first president to ride in an automobile, to appear in motion pictures, and to use the telephone to plot political strategy.
The United States emerged from its isolationist shel because of its growing industrial power.
Presidents and statesmen used to try to keep America out of the conflicts of European powers.
John Adams had warned against the U.S. involvement in Europe.
Statesmen during the 19th century gave only a few exceptions.
The U.S. foreign policy was formed because of noninvolvment in foreign wars and nonintervention in the internal affairs of foreign governments.
Expanding commercial interests led Amer icans to broaden their global commitments during the 1890s.
The focus of the major European powers was Imperialism, and a growing number of expansionists demanded that the United States join in the hunt for new territories and markets outside of North America.
Others thought America should support democratic ideals.
The War of 1898 was sparked by mixed motives and resulted in the acquisition of colonies.
alliances with European pow ers soon followed.
The Great War in Europe in 1914 posed a challenge to America's tradition of nonintervention.
The balance of power in Europe was threatened by a Ger man victory over the French and British.
By 1917, it was clear that Germany would triumph over the Western Hemisphere.
In April 1917, the United States entered the Great War, after German subs sank American merchant ships.
Wilson's crusade to transform international affairs in accordance with his idealistic principles removed American foreign policy from its isolationist moorings.
It spawned a lengthy debate about the nation's role in world affairs, a debate that World War II would resolve on the side of internationalism.
While the United States was becoming a formidable military power, cities and factories sprouted across the nation's landscape, and an abundance of jobs and affordable farmland attracted millions of foreign immigrants.
Labor unrest grew as did ethnic and racial unrest.
Reformers made their first attempt to adapt political and social institutions to the realities of the industrial age in the midst of social turmoil.
The worst excesses of urban development were child labor, corruption, and unsafe working conditions.
Local, state, and federal governments sought to rein in industrial capitalism and develop a more rational and efficient public policy during the Progressive Era.
During the 1920s, the new regulatory state was challenged by a conservative Republican resurgence.
The stock market crash of 1929 led to the worst economic downturn in history.
Demands for federal programs to protect the general welfare were renewed after the Great Depression.
The framework for a welfare state that has since served as the basis for public policy was created by many New Deal initiatives and agencies.
It took a second world war to end the Great Depression and restore full employment after the New Deal.
The growth of the federal government was accelerated by the need to mobilize the nation to support the war.
The development of atomic bombs ushered in a new era of nuclear diplo macy that held the fate of the world in the balance.
Americans in 1945 were living with an array of new anxieties.
Prior to becoming a professional artist, Frederic Remington had unsuccessful ventures into hunting, ranching, and even the saloon business in the West.
Theodore Roosevelt invited him to travel with the Rough Riders during the Spanish- American War because of his technical skill and sense of observation.
A desire to stay out of conflicts elsewhere in the world dominated American public opinion after the Civil War.
The nation's geographic advantages made it possible for the oceans to be to the east and west.
The British navy protected the ship ping lanes between the United States and the British Isles, giving Americans a heightened sense of security.
By the end of the 19th century, people realized that America was a world power with responsibilities and ambitions.
A growing number of Americans want officials to acquire territory outside of North America.
The United States was "destined" to expand its territory eastward across the continental United States, so it expanded into other regions of the Western Hemisphere and the Pacific and Asia.
Americans embraced a new form of expansion that sought distant territories as colonies, with no intention of admitting them to the nation as states.
In other words, the new manifest destiny became a justification for imperialism.
The historian Frederick Jackson Turner said in 1893 that Americans needed new frontiers in order to spread their democratic ideals, capitalist investments, and Christian beliefs.
There is a racial meaning to manifest destiny.
Roosevelt and others believed that the Americans and British were superior to everyone else in their intelligence, ambition, and creativity.
The addition of foreign territories was needed to gain easier access to vital raw materials such as rubber, tin, copper, palm oil, and var ious dyes.
The need for an expanded force of warships to protect growing numbers of oceangoing U.S. freighters was necessitated by the fact that manufacturers and commercial farmers had become increasingly dependent on international trade.
The navy needed bases in the Caribbean and Pacific to replenish their supplies of coal and water.
America expanded its military presence for a number of reasons.
As a result of a war against Spain in 1898, the United States became an imperial ruler of colonies around the world.
Motivated by a mixture of moral and religious ideals, the expansionist push provoked strong opposition.
The British economist wrote in the early 20th century.
Most of Africa and Asia were conquered by the British, French, Belgians, Italians, Dutch, Spanish, and Germans.
Often competing with one another for territories, they established colonial governments to rule over native populations and exploit the colonies economical.
missionaries were dispatched to convert people to Christianity.
There were 18,000 Protestant and Catholic evangelicals by 1900.
A group of American officials demanded expansion.
They included Theodore Roosevelt as well as the president of the U.S.
Modern indus trial development requires a powerful navy centered on huge battleships, foreign commerce, colonies and global naval bases.
America's "destiny" was to control the Caribbean Sea, build a canal across Central America, acquire Hawaii and the Philippine Islands, and spread Christian values and American investments across the Pacific.
His ideas were being spread.
By 1896, the United States had built eleven new battleships, making it the third most powerful navy in the world behind Great Britain and Germany.
The new imperialist spirit was reinforced by claims of racial superiority.
The Anglo- Saxon race was assumed to be dominant by many Americans and Europeans.
Researchers at universities in Europe and America gave "scientific" authority to such racist notions.
Prominent Americans used the arguments of social Darwinism to justify their actions.
They claimed that only the stron gest survived among nations.
The superior char acter of Anglo- Saxon institutions was proclaimed by John Fiske.
The English- speaking "race" was destined to dominate the globe and transform the institutions, traditions, language, and even the blood of the world's "backward" races, he argued.
The theories were used to justify armed conquest.
Roosevelt loved war and considered it necessary to maintain racial supremacy.
The late nineteenth century was a time when imperialist fervor was high in the United States.
Asia was an attractive target for John Fiske.
To take advantage of the Asian markets, the United States had to remove foreign powers from its northern Pacific coast and gain access to the region's valuable ports.
British Columbia was sandwiched between Russian- owned Alaska and the Washington Territory.
While encouraging British Columbia to consider becoming a U.S. territory, Seward learned of Russia's desire to sell Alaska.
He jumped at the chance to acquire British Columbia.
The United States bought Alaska for $7.2 million in 1867 in order to remove the threat of Russian rule in North America.
The Alaska Purchase proved to be the best bargain since the Louisiana Purchase because of its vast deposits of gold and oil.
The State Department's successors continued his vision.
They wanted to acquire key ports in the Pacific Ocean.
Two island groups occupied strategic positions.
Both Pago Pago and Pearl Harbor were major harbors.
American interest in those islands increased after the Civil War.
The United States was granted a naval base at Pago Pago by the Samoans in the 19th century, as well as trade concessions and a call for the United States to help resolve disputes with other nations.
The British and German governments worked out similar arrangements with other islands.
Civil war broke out in Samoa in 1886.
A peace conference in Berlin in 1889 resulted in a protectionate over the island nation of Samoa.
The Hawaiian Islands, a unified kingdom since 1795, had a large population of American Christian missionaries and a profitable crop of sugar cane.
In order for Hawaii's sugar to enter the United States duty free, it had to sign a trade agreement that promised not to lease or grant a third power.
A political cartoon shows President Andrew Johnson and Secretary of State William H. Seward welcoming two new senators from Alaska, an Eskimo and a penguin.
The agreement led to a boom in sugar production because of cheap immi grant labor from Chinese and Japanese workers.
The native Hawaiian population was reduced to a minority by diseases and Asian immigrants became the largest ethnic group.
Queen Liliuokalani tried to limit the political power of American planters.
As he left the presidency in early 1893, Harrison sent an annexation treaty to the Senate.
A special commissioner was sent to Hawaii by the new president to investigate the situation and found that Americans in Hawaii had acted in a way that most native Hawaiians didn't like.
The Republic of Hawaii was created on July 4, 1894, with a provision for Ameri can annexation.
He was looking for a queen to preserve the nation's excuse to annex the islands.
In 1898, the United States annexed Hawaii.
Efforts to create a larger American presence in Asia began when Hawaii was annexed.
Cuba is a Spanish colony ninety miles south of Florida.
The main reason for intervention in Cuba was outrage at Spain.
Cubans revolted against Spanish rule many times in the second half of the 19th century.
Cuba was a major market for Spanish goods.
The United States traded more with Cuba than it did with Spain, and American owners of sugar plantations in Cuba had grown more concerned about the security of their investments.
Cubans began a war against Spanish troops in 1895.
Thousands of Cubans died in Spanish internment camps during the Cuban War for Independence.
The conflict was followed by Americans in the newspapers.
Each tried to outdo the other with sensational headlines about Spanish atrocities.
The role of newspapers was not simply to report on events but to shape public opinion.
He claimed that newspapers could "declare wars" by their sensational story making.
Editors sent their best reporters to Cuba and encouraged them to make up stories to get more readers.
The United States needed a war against Spain to become a world power.
Many Protestant ministers and publications were involved in war because of their dislike of Catholic Spain.
At the start of the Cuban War for Independence, President Cleveland tried to protect U.S. business interests while avoiding military involvement.
Congress was concerned about public sympathy for the rebel cause.
On April 6, 1896, the House and Senate endorsed granting official recognition to the Cuban rebels.
President William McKinley took a sympathetic stance toward the rebels after taking office.
McKinley did not want war.
He said that he had been through one war.
The Cubans rejected Spain's offer of self- government without formal independence in return for ending the rebellion.
Both Spain and the United States did not want a war in 1898.
Within minutes, the hull was filled with water.
Many sailors were asleep when the ship sank.
260 people died on the board.
The sinking was ruled an accident after an on- board coal explosion, but in 1898, people were convinced that the Spanish had sunk the ship.
Congress authorized $50 million to prepare for combat, but McKinley resisted demands for war while negotiating with the Spanish.
The Spanish government grudgingly agreed to every major American demand, but the weight of public opinion and the influence of Republican jingoists eroded McKinley's neutrality.
McKinley asked Congress for authority to use the armed forces to end the fighting in Cuba.
Cuba was declared independent from Spain by Congress on April 20.
The United States and the Spanish government had diplomatic relations.
Spain declared war on April 24 after the U.S. began blockading Cuban ports.
Congress passed a declaration of war the next day.
There are already 28,000 men in the U.S. Army.
Theodore Roosevelt, who resigned from his government post, ordered his tailor to make him an army uniform.
The consequences of an American war were never before seen.
It was an opportunity for McKinley to acquire overseas territories.
The 114 day war with Spain set the United States on a course that would transform its role in the world.
The US Navy won the battle at Manila Bay in the Philippine Islands, a colony controlled by Spain for more than 300 years.
In case of war in Cuba, Roosevelt ordered Commodore George Dewey to engage Spanish warships in the Philippines.