The U.S. ships were being captured by both nations.
The French had broken diplomatic relations with the United States by the time of Adams's inauguration.
Adams sent three prominent Americans to Paris to negotiate an end to the French attacks on U.S. ships.
When the U.S. dip lomats arrived, they were confronted by three French officials who said that negotiations could only begin if the United States paid a $250,000 bribe.
The anti- French sentiment was generated by the XYZ Affair.
The Paris Monster's demand for bribe money was rejected by the three American negotiators.
American hostility toward France increased when the XYZ Affair became public.
Vice President Jefferson was one of the Republicans who joined with the Federalists for war.
Congress voted to triple the size of the army.
George Washington was asked by Adams to command the army again.
Washington agreed on the condition that Alexander Hamilton be appointed a major general.
There was a naval war in the Carib bean Sea by the end of 1798.
There was an intense debate between Repub licans who were sympathetic to France and those who were eager for a formal declaration of war.
Vice President Jefferson observed that a "wall of separation" divided the nation's leaders.
Adams tried to take the high ground.
He invited Jefferson to join him in creating a bipartisan administration.
Jefferson said that he wouldn't be a part of the cabinet and would only preside over the Senate.
They were at each other's throats within a year.
He claimed that Jefferson had become a child of the Republicans in Congress.
The purpose of the French crisis was to give the Federalists an excuse to be quiet in America, according to Jefferson and other Republicans.
The issue of immigrants from war-torn European nations was divisive in the 1790s.
The newcomers were worried that they would bring social and political radicalism with them.
The president was given extraordinary powers to violate civil liberties protected by the Bill of Rights in a clumsy effort to stamp out criticism of the administration.
They limited the freedom of speech and the press, as well as the liberty of immigrants who had not yet gained citizenship.
As a result of the controversial acts, congressmen critical of President Adams were threatened with arrest, and printers were viciously beaten for publishing pamphlets critical of the administration.
Fourteen printers and four newspaper editors were charged with sedition.
Adams's support of the war measures would be the greatest mistake of his presidency.
Many of the French and Irish immigrants who had supported the French Revolution or the Irish Rebellion against British authority had become militant Democratic Republicans in America.
The residency requirement for immigrants to become U.S. citizens was increased from five to four teen years.
All immigrants were required to register with the federal government.
Strengthening the New Nation expels aliens from other nations.
Writing, publishing, or speaking anything of a false, scandalous and malicious nature against the government or any of its officers is against the law.
The ten people convicted under the Sedition Act were all Republicans.
The case of Matthew Lyon, a Republican congressman from Vermont, shows how the prosecutions failed to silence those critical of the Adams administration.
Lyon was sentenced to four months in prison after being convicted by a jury.
Lyon's campaign was centered on his prosecution, which he claimed was unconstitutional.
He was the first congressman to win reelection while in prison.
Republican supporters paid his fines because he was a hero in the cause of free speech and civil liberties.
The Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions were drafted by Vice President Jefferson and Madison to counter the "reign of witches" unleashed by the Alien and Sedition Acts.
The acts they denounced were not as troubling as the resolutions were.
The Alien and Sedition Acts were described by Jefferson as "alarm ing" of constitutional rights, and he threatened to disunion in claiming that state legislatures should "nullify" acts of Congress that violated the constitutional guarantee of free speech.
Adams wanted peace with France.
He sent another team of diplomats to negotiate with a new French government after Napoleon Bonaparte's army overthrown the republic.
The Americans won the best terms in the Convention of 1800.
They dropped their demands to be repaid for the ships taken by the French, and the French agreed to end the military alliance with the United States.
The agreement was quickly approved by the Senate.
The presidential election of 1800 was one of the most divisive in history because of the Alien and Sedition Acts.
The alliance of the two most powerful states, Virginia and New York, was once again represented by the Republican candidates.
The Jacobin election would bring civil war and anarchy according to the Federalists.
The Republican newspaper said that John Adams was a "blind, bald, crippled, toothless man" and that he was a monarchist.
Adams received 65.
The tie was resolved by the House of Representatives.
The New Nation defect was strengthened by the Twelfth Amendment.
The political crisis was caused by the tie vote.
The three months between the House vote for president in December 1800 and Jefferson's inauguration in March 1801 were so tense that people talked openly of civil war.
There were rumors that Jefferson was going to be assassinated.
Thirty-six votes were cast for the House to choose Jeffer son over Burr.
The Judiciary Act of 1801 was passed by President Adams and Congress before the Federalists came to power.
It was intended by Adams to create sixteen federal courts with a new judge for each one.
The number of Supreme Court justices was reduced in order to prevent the next president from appointing a new member.
Federalists were appointed to all the new positions before Adams left office.
They wouldn't use political power again.
The election of 1800 did not resolve the fundamental polit ical tensions that had arisen between ardent nationalists like Adams and Hamilton and those like Jefferson and Madison who had ideals of states' rights and an agriculture- based economy.
The election further divided the young republic into warring political groups and marked a major turning point in the nation's history.
It was the first time in history that one party relinquished presidential power to another, and the only election in which a sitting president was up against his own vice president.
The emergence of a new, more dem ocratic political culture was signaled by Jefferson's hard fought victory.
The "rich, the able, and the wel born" still dominated political life after independence.
The political battles of the late 1790s established the right of common men to play a more active role in governing the young republic.
The electorate expanded in the early 19th century because of the gradual elimination of the requirement that citizens own property to vote.
The election of Jefferson was called the "Revolution of 1800" because it marked the emergence of the Republican party in the South.
John Adams refused to participate in Jefferson's inau guration in Washington, D.C. because he was upset by his defeat and the death of his alcoholic son.
Adams boarded a stagecoach at 4 a.m. for the 500-mile trip to his home in Massachusetts.
He and Jefferson wouldn't say anything for the next twelve years.
Soon, Jefferson would feel the same way.
The Articles of Confederation did not allow the national government to raise taxes.
At the convention in Phila delphia in 1787, delegates decided to scrap the Articles of Confederation and start over.
Establishing a Senate with equal representation for each state and a House of Representatives was the best way to ensure that the rights of individual states were protected.
Ratification of the Constitution was a test of wills.
Alexander Hamilton wanted to create a diverse economy in which agriculture was balanced by trade, finance, and manufacturing.
The rights of states would be protected against federal power in a nation dominated by farmers and planters.
British and American ships were seized by French warships.
Republicans were more supportive of France than the Federalists were.
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The War of 1812 inspired Philadelphia sign painter John Archibald Woodside to create a patriotic painting.
The United States and its western territories reached from the Atlantic Ocean to the Mississippi River under President Thomas Jefferson.
Nine of ten Ameri cans lived on farms.
Congressman Henry Clay said that the American desire for profits was a passion that was unconquerable.
Intoxicated by their freedom, Americans were a people of possibilities.
They excelled at westward expansion, economic development, rapid population growth, and intense political activity because they believed in a brighter future.
The people of America are so ambitious that there is no one else like them on the planet.
Forty percent of the population lived west of the Appalachian Mountains by 1840.
In 1805, a traveler in upstate New York said the woods were full of new settlers.
The United States was described as an "empire of liberty" by Thomas Jefferson.
In the 19th century, people who wanted to own their own farms bought 67,000 acres of government-owned land.
Discuss how foreign events affected the United States.
The federal government decided to relocate the Early Republic's ancestral lands.
The plight of Native Americans was more of a concern for most whites.
The American way of life was defined by restless mobility and impatience.
Civil war was predicted as the House of Representatives decided the outcome of the disputed 1800 presidential election.
Thomas Jefferson was inaugurated without incident on March 4, 1801.
The first democratic election in modern history resulted in the orderly transfer of power from one political party to another.
Republicans and Virginians dominated the nation's political life thanks to Jefferson.
A quarter of the Republican congressmen in the House of Representatives were from Virginia.
Politics in the young republic were becoming more sectional.
The new national capital of Washington, District of Columbia was inaugurated by Jefferson.
While pigs prowled the streets, cows grazed along the Mall.
The Capitol and Executive Mansion were barely completed before Jefferson was sworn in.
Jefferson emphasized his connection to the "common" people during his inauguration.
Jefferson left his boardinghouse on New Jersey Avenue and walked to the Capitol building, instead of wearing a ceremonial sword and riding in a horse drawn carriage as George Washington and John Adams had done.
He read his address in a soft voice and took the oath with his cousin.
He wanted Americans to notice the difference between the style of the Republicans and the style of the Federalists.
He did not wear fancy clothes as president.
Jefferson answered the door of the President's House in a robe and slippers.
Jefferson was trained as an attorney, read Greek and Latin, and was the head of the American Philosophical Society.
In his inaugural address, the tal, thin Jefferson, his red hair now streaked with grey, imagined America as a rising nation, spread over a wide and fruitful land, traversing all the seas with the productions of their indus try across the globe.
He urged Americans to work together despite his determination to overturn many policies.
Jefferson's appeal for unity proved to be il usory because of his own biases.
He was worried that the republic would be turned into a monarchy by the Federalists.
In a more democratic political culture, common people played a larger role in Jefferson's inauguration.
White males gained the right to vote or hold office after the Revolutionary War as states reduced or eliminated requirements that voters and candidates own a specified amount of property.
Many of the founding generation of leaders in both political parties were worried that uneducated and uneducated men would replace the social and political elite in the state legislatures.
"Blustering ignorant men since the war," complained a Massachusetts Federalist.
South Carolina was the only state that refused to shift political power away from the planter elite to the poor.
Voters wanted to govern themselves as the 19th century unfolded.
In the 1800's, more than half the members of the Republican- controlled Congress were first- time legislators.
Thomas Jefferson, who owned slaves, was a bundle of contradictions.
He was progressive and enlightened in some areas.
He was a master at political skullduggery.
He championed government fru gality, yet went bankrupt buying expensive French wines, paintings, and furniture.
The same man who wrote in the Declaration of Independence that "all men are created equal" also bought, bred, flogged, and sold slaves.
After his wife Martha died, Jefferson used her half- sister, a beautiful mulatto slave named Sarah "Sal y" Hemings, as his concubine.
Hemings became Jefferson's "substitute for a wife" in a plantation world where complicated power relationships were hidden behind a veil of silence.
Jefferson's relationship with Sal y was used against him by political foes.
The building's architect Benjamin Henry Latrobe painted a watercolor for Thomas Jefferson.
After the building was damaged in the War of 1812, a dome would be added.
The reason Jefferson didn't free his slaves was because he was too depen dent of their forced labor.
For all his shyness and weakness as a public speaker, Thomas Jefferson was the first president to take on the role of party leader, and he cultivated congressional support at frequent social gatherings.
Secretary of State James Madison, his best friend, and Secretary of the Treasury Albert Galin, a Pennsylvania Republican, were the leading figures in his cabinet.
In filling lesser offices, Jefferson often succumbed to pressure from Republicans to remove Federalists, only to discover that there were few qualified candidates to replace them.
The new president decided to remove most of the offices from the federal judiciary because it was the only branch of the government still controlled by the Federalists.
The Judiciary Act of 1801 was repealed by the Republican controlled Con gress at Jefferson's request.
The Judiciary Act ensured the control of the judicial system by creating sixteen federal circuit courts and appointing a Federalist judge for life.
The case went to the Supreme Court, presided over by Chief Justice John Marshall, who attended law school at the College of William and Mary and became a respected Richmond attorney after serving in the army.
Marshall helped convince Virginians to sign the U.S. Constitution.
President Adams appointed him chief justice early in the 19th century.
Mar was a fierce critic and lifelong enemy of Jefferson, who he considered a war- shirking aristocracy who preferred the states over the national government.
The Repub licans liked it that way.
The marshal set out to strengthen the judiciary.
He made the Supreme Court the most powerful court in the world because of his insistence on the supremacy of the national government over the states.
William Marbury was appointed justice of the peace in the District of Columbia.
When James Madison took office as secretary of state, Jefferson ordered Madison to not deliver Marbury's letter of appointment, which was signed by President Adams two days before he left office.
Marbury sued for the court to order Madison to deliver his commission.
The marshal denied that the court had jurisdiction in the case.
Marshall ruled that the Federal Judiciary Act of 1789 was unconstitutional because it gave the court authority only in cases involving foreign ambassadors.
The court could not issue an order in the case.
Marshall had elevated the stature of the Court by admonishing Jefferson while avoiding an awkward confrontation with the administration that might have disobeyed his order.
Marshall said that the Supreme Court was "emphatical" to say what the law is, even if it meant overruling both Congress and the president.
The final authority in all constitutional interpretations was established by Marshall.
Jefferson was angry over the ruling.
Jefferson would lose the argument.
John Marshall's creation of American constitutional law made the unelected, life- tenured justices of the Supreme Court more effective allies of a strong national government.
President Jefferson had some successes in his first term.
He didn't dismantle Alexan der Hamilton's economic program.
Jefferson, who like many other southern planters never understood the function of banks, learned to accept the national bank as essential to economic growth.
Hamilton argued that a federal debt was a national "blessing" because it gave bankers and investors a direct financial stake in the success of the new republic.
The federal budget was slashed to pay down the government debt.
He said that state militias and small navy gunboats provided adequate protection against foreign enemies and cut the military budget in half.
The whiskey tax was repealed by Jefferson.
He admitted that he had lied about his affection for the men from the Western side of the mountains.
The federal budget was helped by the nation's prosperous economy.
The sale of government- owned western lands soared as Americans streamed west, as revenues from federal tariffs on imports rose with the growing European trade.
Jefferson promised "peace, commerce, and honest friendship with all nations" after assuming the presidency, but some nations preferred war.
European and American merchant ships were preyed upon by Islamic rulers on the Barbary Coast of North Africa.
The ruler of Tripoli declared war on the United States in 1802.
A force of U.S. Marines marched 500 miles across the desert to assault Derna, the second largest town in Libya.
It was still blackmail, but less than the pirates had demanded and less than the cost of a war.
While Alexander Hamilton looked to Great Britain for his model of national greatness, Thomas Jefferson looked to the west for his inspiration.
He believed that America could avoid the social turmoil and misery of Europe if it expanded eastward.
Jefferson and the Republicans tried to reduce the cost of federal lands.
The number of states was increased by the Early Republic.
Government land sales west of the Appalachian Mountains skyrocketed as settlers shoved Indians aside and established homesteads.
A stroke of good fortune allowed Jefferson to double the nation's size.
American diplomats in Europe heard rumors that Napoleon Bonaparte had forced Spain to transfer its huge Louisiana province back to France.
The French First Consul had a huge ego, self-confidence, and a single- minded hunger for military victories.
Napoleon was a penniless immigrant who became an army general at the age of twenty-six.
He was the most feared ruler in the world, conqueror of Egypt and Italy.
After taking control of the French government in 1799, Napoleon set out to restore his country's North American empire that had been lost to Great Britain.
Napoleon was referred to as a "scoundrel" and "a gigantic force" by President Jefferson.
Jefferson explained that a weak Spain con in the west of the Mississippi River could have been avoided if France had not taken control of the Mississippi Valley.
Robert R. Livingston was sent to Paris by Jefferson to be the ambassador to France.
Livingston wanted to acquire the strategic port city of New Orleans, located at the mouth of the Mississippi River.
The day that France takes possession of New Orleans, Jefferson told Living ston, was when he purchased New Orleans and West Florida.
Over the years, New Orleans has become a dynamic crossroads where 50,000 people of different nationalities have come and gone, making huge profits from the vast amount of goods floating down the Missis sippi.
Americans living in Tennessee and Kentucky had threatened to leave if the federal government didn't make sure they could send their goods to New Orleans.
James Monroe, Jefferson's friend and neighbor in Virginia, was sent by Jefferson to assist Livingston in the negotiations in Paris.
Monroe was told by Jefferson that "all eyes, all hopes, are now fixed on you."
The Republic of Haiti was created by a slave revolt and epidemics of malaria and yellow fever that decimated Napoleon's army on the Caribbean island of Saint- Domingue.
Slaveholders in the southern states panicked when they heard of the first successful slave rebellion in history.
Saint- Domingue was a profitable source of coffee and sugar, so Napoleon tried to regain control.
He wanted to connect New Orleans and Haiti as a first step in expanding France's empire.
After losing more than 24,000 soldiers to disease and warfare, Napoleon decided to cut his losses by selling the Louisiana Territory to the United States and use the proceeds to fund his next war with Great Britain.
He knew that France would eventually lose control of the Louisiana Territory because of America's rapid population growth.