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8.1 Linear Momentum and Force

- The average effective force is determined using graphical representation.

- Average force and impulse are calculated.

- The principle of momentum is related to atomic and subatomic particles.

- Determine the final velocities in an elastic collision.

- Reckless energy and loss are determined by the mass and initial velocity.

- Discuss two-dimensional collision as an extension of one-dimensional analysis.

- Determine the magnitude and direction of the final velocity.

- Explain the principle behind jet engines.

- Discuss the factors that affect the rocket's speed.

- Most of the ways we use the term momentum are consistent with its scientific definition.
- Sports teams or politicians are gaining and losing.
- We know that there is something to do with collisions.
- The rugby players in the picture colliding and falling to the ground are expected to have great effects in the resulting collision.
- A tendency to move in the same direction is associated with great mass and speed.

- It is important because it is conserved.
- In our study of momentum, we will see that only a few physical quantities are conserved in nature, and that studying them yields fundamental insight into how nature works.

- The object's mass and speed are directly proportional to the object's momentum.
- The direction of the momentum is the same as the velocity.
- The SI unit is for momentum.

- We can only calculate the magnitude of the momentum because no direction is given.

- Only magnitudes are considered.

- Substitute the known values for the player's mass and speed into the equation to determine the player's momentum.

- Substitute the known values for the ball's mass and speed into the equation to determine the ball's momentum.

- The player has more mass than the ball.
- The player's momentum is much greater than the football's.
- The player's motion is not affected if he catches the ball.
- We will quantify what happens in the later sections.

- Early in the development of classical physics, the importance of momentum was recognized.

- The law uses symbols to show where the net external force is, the change in momentum, and the change in time.

- The net external force is the change in momentum of a system.

- Both force and momentum are related.
- Newton's second law of motion, which states that force acting over time can change momentum, can be stated in its most broadly applicable form.
- The study of atomic and subatomic particles in quantum mechanics uses the concept of momentum.

- A special case is included in the second law of motion.
- As follows, we can derive this form.

- The mass of the system is constant.

- The second law of motion can be applied to systems where the mass is changing, such as rockets, and to systems of constant mass.

- Venus Williams hit the fastest serve in a premier women's match, reaching a speed of 58 m/s.

- The problem is only one dimensions because the ball has no horizontal component before impact.

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