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41.5 Hormonal Control of Osmoregulatory Functions
During the breakdown of nucleic acids, mammals form some uric acid.
Uric acid is similar to purines.
Birds, insects, and reptiles excrete it as a white paste or powder.
Ammonia to uric acid requires more energy than ammonia to urea.
Different species excrete nitrogenous waste.
Ammonia, urea, and uric acid are included.
Too much uric acid can cause gout, a painful condition in which uric acid crystals accumulate in the joints.
Reducing the amount of nitrogenous bases in the diet can help reduce the risk of gout.
Tea, coffee, and chocolate have compounds called xanthines that are related to gout and kidney stones.
This person has inflammation in their left big toe joint.
The kidneys act in concert with hormones to maintain osmotic balance in the body.
Hormones act as messengers within the body.
Hormones travel in the bloodstream to affect a target cell in another part of the body when they are released from one cell.
Different regions of the nephron have specialized cells that respond to hormones.
The hormones that control the osmoregulatory functions are summarized in the table.
Epinephrine and norepinephrine are released by the nervous system.
When the body is under extreme stress, the flight/fight hormones are released.
Much of the body's energy is used during stress.
The function of the kidneys is stopped temporarily.
The hormones act on the smooth muscles of the blood vessels.
Blood flow into the nephrons stops when the afferent arterioles are narrowed.
Renin is produced by the afferent and efferent arterioles.
The kidneys control volume and blood pressure.
Angiotensin II raises blood pressure.
The release of the mineralocorticoid aldosterone from the adrenal cortex also stimulates the reabsorb of more sodium.
It reduces the glomerular filtration rate.
Drugs that block ACE can be used to control blood pressure.
The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system increases blood pressure.
The hormone ANP has an effect.
Mineralocorticoids affect osmotic balance.
Aldosterone regulates the levels of sodium in the blood.
The urine contains almost all of the blood's sodium.
The water levels in body fluids are maintained by aldosterone because of the reabsorption of sodium by active transport.
The aldosterone stimulates the production of potassium and sodium at the same time.
Without aldosterone, no sodium gets reabsorbed in the renal tubules and all of it gets excreted in the urine.
The retention of K+ can cause a dangerous increase in the concentration of K+ in the body.
Patients with the disease can't produce aldosterone.
The consequences of losing sodium in their urine can be fatal if the supply is not restored.
It is created by the hypothalamus and released from the pituitary.
Aquaporins are inserted into the collecting ducts to promote reabsorption of water.
ADH increases blood pressure during hemorrhaging.
It is released by cells in the heart in response to high blood pressure and sleep disorders.
ANP has a diuretic effect because water follows salt to maintain osmotic balance.
ANP reduces water reabsorption and lowers blood pressure.
The actions of aldosterone, ADH, and renin were suppressed.
The movement of water and solutes across the segmental, interlobar, arcsuate, and cortical arteries can be influenced by the movement of the renal arteries.
The number of solute molecules is more important than the size of the molecule.
osmotic balance and the function of the nephron are important bodily functions.
The water and salt balance is being caused by the nephron.
Some solutes can't be made up of the renal tubule.
Osmosis and juxtamedullary movement of water across the membrane are found in therenal cortex.
The number of solute molecule across a semi medulla is equalized in the renal cortex.
Water and tissue fluid are exchanged by the movement of water to the side solutes with two sets of blood vessels and the tissue fluid in higher solute concentration.
The kidneys are utilized by Facilitated diffusion.
There are three steps in the formation of urine: glomerular higher to lower concentration, tubular mechanisms required to move solutes against reabsorption, and tubular concentration gradients.
The amount of smolarity is measured in units of secretion.
osmoconformers and osmoregulators are some of the systems that have evolved for excreting waste.
The main osmoregulatory organs are the kidneys.
Malpighian tubules are evolved by some insects to function as filters and excretes.
They are surrounded by three layers and are made up of 41.4 Nitrogenous Wastes.
Terrestrial animals have evolved special mechanisms to eliminate the toxic ammonia from Hormonal cues, which helps the osmotic of their systems.
The body needs urea for its ammonia needs.
Birds, arthropods, and reptiles benefit from Uric acid, which is a major component of norepinephrine, renin-angiotensin, aldosterone, and atrial natriuretic peptide.
There is a drain into the ureter.
The duct empties into a body of water.
There are pyramids in the medulla.
The glomerulus is surrounded by the capsule.
The drugs prevent the reabsorption of Na+ by the loop of Henle.
They increase urination.
He or she is given fluids in the form of a macula densa.
The osmolarity of body fluids is maintained.
The concentration of the sodium ion is the highest.
None of the above glands is located at the top of the kidneys.
Humans accumulate nitrogenous waste before excreting it.
Renin is made by someone.
The primitive excretory organs found in b. retain salts are called flame cells.
It's called BUN.
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