It is clear that the creators of the gardens in royal castles and historic houses of Europe knew more than just flowers and fountains.
The plants they chose were familiar to them.
The United States' tradition of landscape design has strong roots.
One of the best examples of early American classical design is Thomas Jefferson's private estate, Monticello.
Landscape layout can encompass a small private space, like a backyard garden, public gathering places, or an entire city plan, like Pierre L'Enfant's design for Washington, DC.
A landscape designer will plan traditional public spaces, such as botanical gardens, parks, college campuses, gardens, and larger developments, as well as natural areas and private gardens.
A landscape designer's education includes a solid background in a number of disciplines.
The degree requires course work in architecture and design software.
An extensive knowledge of plant growth requirements, such as light and shade, moisture levels, compatibility of different species, and susceptibility to pathogens and pests, is required for the successful design of a landscape.
In shaded areas where fountains provide water, mosses and ferns will thrive, while cacti will not.
The growth of individual plants needs to be taken into account to avoid crowding and competition.
The space's appearance over time is of concern.
For a sustainable green space, shapes, colors, and biology must be balanced.
The landscape has art, architecture, and biology in it.
The garden was designed by students in the college.
You will be able to discuss the type of seeds produced by gymnosperms, as well as other characteristics of gymnosperms, by the end of this section.
The OpenStax book is free and can be found at http://cnx.org/content/col11487/1.9.
The life cycle of bryophytes and pterophytes is characterized by generations.
The male and female gametes must swim to complete the life cycle.
The male gametophyte releases sperm, which must swim--propelled by their flagella--to reach and fertilize the female gamete or egg.
After fertilization, the zygote develops into a sporophyte, which in turn will form sporangia, or "spore vessels," in which mother cells undergo meiosis and produce haploid spores.
A new generation of gametophytes will be created by the release of spores in a suitable environment.
The evolutionary trend led to a dominant sporophyte generation in which the diploid plant is the larger and more important generation for a species.
The trend led to a reduction in the size of the gametophyte, from a structure to a cluster of cells.
Heterosporous plants, such as club mosses and ferns, only produce one type of spore.
All seed plants, or spermatophytes, are Heterosporous, forming two types of spores: megaspores (female) and microspores (male).
Female gametophytes produce eggs, while male gametophytes produce sperm.
The gametophytes are not free- living because they mature within the spores.
Heterosporous seedless plants are seen as the ancestors of seed plants.
Plants from other plants are distinguished by their seeds and pollen.
The colonization of land depended on the adaptation.
Fossils show the earliest seed plants about 350 million years ago.
The progymnosperms were the first naked seed plants.
The transitional group of plants looked like conifers because they produced wood from the secondary growth of the vascular tissues, but they still reproduced like ferns, releasing spores to the environment.
Gymnosperms dominated the landscape in the past.
The most abundant plant group in the world is angiosperms, which took over by the middle of the Cretaceous period.
The two innovative structures of pollen and seed allowed seed plants to break their dependence on water for reproduction and development of the embryo, and to conquer dry land.
The male gametes of the plant are carried by the pollen grains.
The plant's genes can be spread far from the sporophyte that bore it, avoiding competition with other plants.
The embryo protection, nourishment and mechanism to maintain dormancy of the seed allows it to survive in a harsh environment for tens or even thousands of years.
Plants can be dispersed through both space and time with the help of seeds.
Seed plants are the most successful and familiar group of plants.
Descendants of a single common ancestor are not included in paraphyletic groups.
Gymnosperm characteristics include naked seeds, separate female and male gametes, pollination by wind, and tracheids, which transport water and solutes in the vascular system.
Pine trees carry both male and female sporophylls on the same plant.
pines are similar to gymnosperms in that they produce male and female microspores.
The pollen grains are formed by the microspores.
There are two cells in a pollen grain, one of which will become a sperm and the other of which will become a pollen tube cell.
In the spring, pine trees release large amounts of yellow pollen, which is carried by the wind.
A gametophytes will land on a female cone.
The generative cell in the pollen grain divides into two sperm cells as the pollen tube grows.
In the process of fertilization, one of the sperm cells will unite its haploid nucleus with the haploid nucleus of an egg cell.
A female multicellular gametophyte is formed by a single surviving haploid cell.
The embryo is enclosed in a seed coat of tissue from the parent plant after fertilization.
Fertilization and seed development can take up to two years after pollination.
The embryo contains three generations of tissues: the seed coat, the female gametophyte and the parent plant tissue.
The lifecycle of a conifer is shown in this image.
The process of seed production in gymnosperms is shown in this video.
Gymnosperms are classified into four major divisions.
The production of secondary cambium and their pattern of seed development are not closely related to each other.
The closest group to angiosperms is Gnetophyta, because they produce true xylem tissue that contains both vessel elements and tracheids.
Most tall trees have leaves that are needle-like.
The snow slides off the leaves, keeping the load light and decreasing the break of branches.
The predominance of conifers in cold climates is explained by their adaptation to cold and dry weather.
conifers include evergreen trees such as pines, firs, cedars, sequoias, and yews.
The European larch is an example of a deciduous conifer.
Many trees are cut down to make paper and timber.
The dominant form of vegetation at high altitudes is cattle.
Gymnosperms may be pollinated by beetles rather than wind.
They dominated the landscape during the time of dinosaurs.
There were a hundred or so cycad species in the past.
Several species are protected through international conventions.
Its leaves are fan-shaped and turn yellow in autumn and fall from the plant.
It is resistant to pollution and is planted in public spaces.
Plants have male and female organs.
Gardeners usually only plant male trees because the seeds produced by the female plant have an off-putting smell.