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55.2 Local Movement and Long-Range Migration
The lines show the different frequencies the birds produce.
The juvenile white-crowned sparrow will sing an abnormal song if it is kept in isolation or only hears the song of a different species.
If the juvenile is exposed to the white-crowned sparrow song, he will sing it.
YoungCuckoos are reared by parent birds of different species because they lay their eggs in other birds' nest.
Unlike the whitecrowned sparrow, adult cuckoos sing their own song, not that of the host species.
Learning occurs during a brief critical period and establishes a long- lasting behavioral response to a specific object or individual, such as recognition and bonding to a parent.
Konrad Lorenz studied Imprinting in the 1930s.
Young birds of some species imprint on their mother during a critical period that is usually within a few hours after hatching.
It would be hard for the mother to keep track of her offspring as they walk or swim, so this behavior serves them well.
The offspring keep a record of the mother.
Young ducks or geese need to learn to follow their mother's movements quickly in order to survive.
After raising greylag geese from eggs, Lorenz used himself as a model for imprinting.
After hatching life, geese prefer the company of Lorenz and other humans to geese.
They follow their mother but can be made to imprint on humans.
Konrad Lorenz, an ethologist, was shown in studies to be an object that young geese saw after hatching.
Animals imprint in different ways.
Distinguish between kinesis and taxis, two different types of local trick used in sheep farming is to disguise a lamb.
Experiments determine if abandoned lamb smells like her own.
Animals use visual or olfactory clues to learn.
The roaches tend to be hundreds or even thousands of kilometers apart.
Several dif are moving away from the light.
The photosynthetic ferent types of behavior may be involved in these movements.
In this section, we explore local movement and move toward a light source.
Sea turtles use landmarks to guide their movements.
We will be attracted to the light.
When they emerge from their nest, they look at the possible mechanisms used by the bright spot to find their way.
The simplest forms of movement are responses to stimuli.
Some freshwater fishes move away from the source of the stimuli.
The woodlice move through their gills and help them from being washed downstream.
Sometimes memory and landmarks can be used to aid in local move, which can keep them in damper areas.
The female avoid desiccation.
The wasp flew genetically programmed events.
Each time a honeybee leaves the nest, she catches and stings it.
He thought that they paralyze it, return to the nest, drag the bee into the nest, and learn the position of the nest by creating a mental map of the land.
The egg feeds on marks in the area.
Tinbergen adjusted his hypothesis before it was fully developed.
The wasp needs to catch and sting the landmarks around the burrow to get the bees.
The digger wasp uses visual landmarks to locate their nest.
The female digger wasp digs an underground nest and brings food to her offspring inside.
Repeated experiments show that the wasp uses landmarks.
Two pieces of cardboard are coated with pine oil.
After the wasp leaves the nest, move the pinecones 30 cm from the nest, but leave scented cardboard at the nest.
The pinecone nest is 30 cm from the Move pinecones wasp nest.
The seventeen wasps were studied in two steps.
The five wasp were studied in steps 3 and 4.
The positions of visual landmarks are used by digger wasp to aid in local movements.
When the wasp was out hunting, he moved the circle to get the learning.
He thought that the wasp could be a distance away from the real nest and constructed a sham one, responding to the scent of pinecones rather than their making a small depression in the sand.
He put a circle of pinecones in the entrance of the burrow.
The wasp flew straight to the that had no scent and two small pieces of cardboard coated in pine sham nest and tried to locate the entrance.
Tinbergen chased it.
It flew back to the sham nest.
Tinbergen left scented cardboard around the real nest.
The wasp chose the sham nest nine times.
Tinber was once again ignored the real nest, and flew Gen got the same result with 16 other was, and not once did they to the sham.
He concluded that the wasp was choosing the real nest.
Some of them had alcohol in their system.
In 100 hours of observing, an accurate bee shape was not a neces event.
The topic is about animals.
The question concerns how digger was able to locate suitable prey.
For example, almost half of the bird species of North America use visual migration to escape the cold winters to find their prey in South America.
You will return to North America in the spring to breed.
You know that digger was use visual landmarks to locate to feed in the winter and then return to breed because of the understanding you gained from Figure 55.7.
Their nest was staggering.
The northward journey of bee scent is an interesting point.
If the results of the experiment indicate that digger was complete, place a check mark in each of the columns.
They may be responding to bee shape, bee movement, or bee butterflies laying eggs and dying.
The milkweed scent leads to the development of the caterpillar.
If they are not, place a minus.
Spain butterflies migrate to a small area in Mexico to avoid the cold weather in the north.
They roost in large numbers in fir trees.
There are butterflies in Florida and Cuba.
Young starlings didn't fly in coastal California.
The monarchs take a route to Spain.
The return journey has a cycle that happens several times.
There are no overwintering sites in France or England for the northward and southward migrations.
The individuals have never been to the destinations in the southwest.
When juvenile were captured in the Netherlands, they must have had an innate ability to migrate.
Adult birds may be involved in piloting, orientation, and navigation when captured and moved.
Many whale species migrate between summer feeding areas and Earth's magnetic field.
Birds have magnetite in their beaks.
Refer back to Section 44.4 Sea near Alaska to coastal areas of Mexico for information on gray whales.
navigation can be aided by the stars line, mountain ranges, and rivers.
Pigeons follow a compass bearing but also adjust it.
When the pigeons are released, they breed in Scandinavia and northeastern Europe, and migrate in display of predictable deviations in their flight.
The orientation of the birds is shifted every hour when the southwest direction is shifted to the internal clock.
Some examples of animal migration are not understood.
The green Netherlands was transported south to Switzerland.
It is not known why the turtles lay their eggs on this speck.
This result shows how they find the island.
The juvenile birds rely on Ascension more than the adult birds on other beaches.
Scientists have made many discoveries about animal navigation, including the position of the Sun, the stars, and how animals acquire a map sense.
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