After the War of 1812, America's boundaries were extended and trade with Great Britain resumed.
To the north, the U.S. established borders with Canada.
The Republicans are the only national political party.
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The Panic of 1837 was caused by Andrew Jackson's economic policies and hit the working poor the hardest.
The cartoon depicts New York City during the seven- year depression, with a mob storming a bank, a widow begging on the street, and a barefoot sailor.
The militiaman is a down- on- luck member of the Bowery Toughs gang.
Jackson's hat, glasses, and pipe overlook the scene and the cartoonist blames him.
Andrew Jackson was a unique leader.
Jackson was the emblem of a new democratic era.
Jackson was short and thin.
He never hesitated to fight or get even if his sense of honor was challenged.
Politics was personal for Jackson.
Simple pleasures were what Jackson believed in.
He installed twenty spittoons in the White House.
Jackson was an intimidating dating figure with his blue eyes, long nose, jutting chin, silver- gray hair, and intense, iron- willed personality.
He was not in good health when he took the presidency.
Jackson was focused and sure of himself despite his physical challenges.
He loved the rough and tumble combat of the new democratic political culture more than previous presidents.
He boasted that he was born for a storm.
Many political leaders cringed at the thought of Jackson, who had run roughshod over international law in his war against the British, presiding over the nation.
Jackson took the nation by storm in the Jacksonian Era.
No political figure was more hated than the other way around.
He helped shape the Democratic party and the modern presidency as a soldier, lawyer, planter, and politician.
Jackson's role in democratizing the political process was one of the reasons why he symbolized what he called the emergence of the "common man" in politics.
He stamped his name and his ideas, personality, and values on an entire era of American history.
Thirty years of democratic innovations in politics culminated in Andrew Jackson's election.
Most white men were allowed to vote and hold office during the 18th and 19th century.
White men were given equal status as citizens regardless of wealth or background.
Politics was no longer only for the wealthiest white Americans.
It was also possible to campaign.
People from all walks of life were well informed about public policy issues and Pol itics became the most popular form of mass entertainment.
The only pleasure an American knows is politics.
Jackson was the most partisan and involved president in history.
He formed "Hickory Clubs" to campaign for him, unlike previous presidents who viewed campaigning as unseemly.
Jackson benefited from a powerful Democratic party machine run by his trusted secretary of state, Martin Van Buren, a cunning New York lawyer who turned out voters and steered them to Jackson.
The surge of democratic activism worried many southern slaveholders.
George Fitzhugh was not a fan of democratic ideals.
By mid- century, democracy was more an ideal than a reality for most Americans.
Jacksonian Democrats helped expand economic opportunity and political participation for working men.
The inauguration of President Andrew Jackson was rowdy.
America's seventh president stepped out of the Capitol Building at noon on March 4, dressed in a black mourning suit in honor of his recently deceased wife.
When Jackson emerged from the cold, 15,000 people roared and waved their hats.
"I have never seen anything like it before," said Daniel Webster, the celebrated senator from Massachusetts.
Jackson bowed with great dignity as he acknowledged the crowd's excitement and urged them to settle down.
In his speech, he committed his administration to the task of reform in the federal government, taking jobs out of "unfaithful or incompetent hands" and balancing states' rights with the exercise of national power.
He promised to pursue the will of the people.
Jackson rode his white horse down Pennsylvania Avenue to the white Executive Mansion after being sworn in by the Chief Justice.
A large crowd of Democrats turned into a drunken mob.
There were smashed dishes, glasses, and furniture at the party.
In this depiction of Andrew Jackson's inauguration party, satirist Robert Cruikshank suggests that people from all walks of life are welcome in the White House.
There was a mob of boys, negroes, women, children, scrambling, fighting, and romping.
The inaugural party was seen as a symbol of all that was wrong with the "democratic" movement by those who were skeptical of Jackson's qualifications for office.
He shuddered as he realized that Jacksonian democracy was at work.
Jackson was a military hero and gifted leader.
To his enemies, he was a tyrant and a military leader.
Andrew Jackson wanted to increase the powers of the presidency at the expense of the legislative and judicial branches.
Too many government officials have grown corrupt and self-serving, and the ruling political and economic elite must be removed, he said.
Jackson launched a policy called "rotation in office", whereby he replaced many federal officials with his supporters.
District attorneys, federal marshals, customs collectors, and other government jobs belonged to the people.
He believed that when new elected officials appointed new government officials, democracy flourished.
Jackson cut federal spending to help pay off the debt.
The Second Bank of the United States was destroyed by internal improvements that were national in scope.
His primary motive was to enable whites to exploit Indian ancestral lands, even though he claimed that the Indians were being displaced for their own protection.
Jackson was preoccupied with squabbles within his cabinet.
Jackson's administration was divided between those who wanted to succeed him as president and those who wanted to keep him in office.
Jackson didn't trust Calhoun, a Yale graduate who was distrusted by both parties.
The preservation of the slave-based cotton economy that made him a wealthy planter was one of the reasons why Calhoun focused his efforts on defending southern inter ests.
Van Buren was able to take advantage of a juicy scan dal known as the Peggy Eaton affair.
One of Jackson's closest friends was the widow of a former U.S. sen ator.
Margaret "Peggy" O' Neale Timberlake was married to a naval officer frequently at sea.
She was very pleased with Senator John Eaton.
John Timberlake died at sea.
Rumors swirled that he had committed suicide after learning of his wife's infidelity.
After the presidential election in 1828, John Eaton wrote a letter to Jackson about the gossip that was aimed at him.
On January 1, 1829, Eaton did so.
The "unseemly haste" of the marriage was criticized by Eaton's enemies.
The 1870 cigar box label made fun of John O' Neal, Andrew Jackson's Secretary of War, because he was the wife of a man.
To the right, the President's secretary of war married Jackson and gave her a bouquet after she became his mistress and the wives of his cabinet were against her.
She was in a duel for disrespecting her honor.
In trampling on the Constitution, he thought women had no right to mix politics with social life because they were doing so with the help of the Bank.
He wanted loyalty from the United States.
Jackson's own wife, Rachel, had been plagued by mean- spirited gossip.
The president was distracted by the rumoring and sniping for a long time.
The "Petticoat Affair" was blamed on Henry Clay and John C. Calhoun.
The president wanted to be president.
One of Pres houn's friends wrote that Jackson was "governed by the gossip aimed at himself and Peggy Tim President-- the President by the Sec berlake."
He would sacrifice his country on January 1, 1829.
For his part, Calhoun "unseemly haste" of the marriage and dismissed Jackson as a self- infatuated man.
The role of the federal government was played by the vice president's imperious wife.
In order to build a sixty mile long road across trampling on the Constitution, the state of Kentucky and the Bank of the nothing more than vicious meddling, women had no right to mix politics with social life.
He wanted loyalty from the United States.
Jackson was reminded of the mean- spirited gossip that upset Clay.
We were horrified by the rejection of his wife, Rachel.
He wrote to a friend that he was very loyal to John.
Jackson blamed the "Petticoat Affair" on President Jackson's forced removal of Indians from their ancestral lands.
One of the president's lowest moments was when he assumed that Calhoun was his highest priority.
The Indians had to leave if they were to survive, according to him.
After Jackson's election in 1828, he urged that the remaining eastern Indi ans be moved to reservations west of the Mis sissippi River in what became Oklahoma.
Jackson believed that moving the Indians would serve their best interests as well as the national interest for the states in the Lower South to restrict the rights of Indian nations and take their land.
President Jackson told Indian leaders that he was trying to protect them from greedy state governments.
He claimed that relo cating the eastern Indians was a wise and humane policy that would save them if they tried to hold on to their lands.
The new program promised to pay for the Indian exodus and give them initial support in their new lands in Oklahoma.
Indian leaders were skeptical.
reformers distrusted Jackson's motives and doubted the federal government's support, which provoked heated opposition to Jackson's proposal.
Critics flooded Congress with petitions that criticized the policy and warned that Jackson's plan would bring "enduring shame" on the nation.
The forced removal of the Indian nations was opposed by frontiersman like President Jackson.
Jackson signed the Indian removal act after the Senate passed it by a single vote.
Most northern Indians were relocated because of federal threats.
In Illinois and the Wisconsin Territory, the Sauk and Fox Indians fought to regain their ancestral lands.
An armed group of Seminoles crouch under a mangrove in the Florida Everglades during the Second Seminole War, out of sight of the American sailors passing by.
The last Native American tribe to end their war with the United States was the Seminoles in Florida.
The land of Illinois is shared with the Fox Nation.
The Sauk and Fox were captured by the Indiana and Illinois militia on the eastern bank of the Mississippi, a few miles downstream from the mouth of the Bad Axe River.
The Indians' attempt to surrender was misinterpreted by the soldiers.
The militiamen murdered hundreds of women and children as they tried to escape.
The sol diers used long strips of flesh from the dead Indians to sharpen their razors.
Black Hawk was captured and imprisoned six weeks later.
The federal removal policy was resisted ferociously by the Seminoles.
The longest war ever fought by Native Americans was organized by the Seminoles for eight years.
There were 1,500 deaths on both sides.
At times, the women of the tribe killed their children.
After 1836, when the white flag of truce was used to capture and kill Osceola, the resistance waned.
Only a few hundred of them remained after 1842.
The last Native American tribe to end its war with the United States was the Seminoles in Florida.
The federal removal policy was also tried to defy by the Cherokee Nation.
The Cherokees had long occupied northwest Georgia and the mountainous areas of northern Alabama, eastern Tennessee, and western North Carolina.
They adopted a constitution in the 19th century that declared they were not subject to the laws of any state or federal government.
Georgia officials had other ideas.
The authority of state law in Georgia would be extended to the Cherokees after June 1, 1830.
The "barbarous and savage tribes" must give way to white civilization.
They wouldn't be allowed to vote, own property or testify against whites in court under the new state laws.
The discovery of gold in north Georgia in 1829 led to a new state law and increased whites' lust for Cherokee land.
The Cherokees were not allowed to dig for gold on their own lands.
The Supreme Court was requested by the Cherokees.
They said they wanted to stay on the land of their fathers.
Georgia officials arrested a group of white Christian missionaries who were living among the Cherokees in violation of a state law.
Samuel and Elihu were sentenced to four years of hard labor in the Jacksonian Era.
The Supreme Court was appealed to.
He said that Georgia law had no force in the Cherokee Nation.
President Jackson refused to enforce the Court's "wicked" decisions, claiming that he had no authority to intervene in Georgia.
The Creeks were told by Jackson that they could not live in harmony and peace if they remained in their ancestral lands.
Georgia officials began selling Cher okee lands.
The irony of the new Georgia policy was that the Cherokees were the closest to adopting the customs of white America.
They abandoned traditional hunting practices to develop farms, build roads, schools, and churches.
Many Cherokees converted to Christianity after marrying whites.
The Cherokees owned slaves.
The indian removal act created a strategy of divide and conquer with the Cherokees.
Thousands of Cherokees died on a march from Georgia to Oklahoma after being forced from their native lands.
The treaty was accepted by the U.S. Senate despite the fact that 90 percent of the Cherokee people rejected it.
Thousands of refugees died along the way.
President Van Buren reported to Congress that the entire Cherokee Nation had been relocated.
The "Eastern Band" of Cherokees were a few who held out in the mountains of North Carolina.
After Alabama and Mississippi took control of their tribal lands, the Creeks and Chickasaws followed.
The government sold 100 million acres of Indian land in Georgia, Alabama, and Missis sippi, known as the Old Southwest, after relocating 100,000 eastern Indians to the West during the 1820s and 1830s.
Andrew Jackson had the same stubbornness in dealing with the national bank as he did in removing the Indians.
The charter for the First Bank of the United States expired in 1812, but was renewed in 1816 as the Second Bank of the United States.
It became the largest corporation in the nation and the only truly national business enterprise.
The purpose of the B.U.S.
is to benefit the government.
was able to use the government deposits in its vaults for loans to businesses because it was a commercial bank.
is based in Philadelphia and has branches around the nation.
It helped promote a stable money supply and deter excessive lending by requiring the 464 state banks to keep enough gold and silver coins in their vaults to back their own paper currency, which they in turn lent to individuals and businesses.
Half of the paper money they created between 1812 and 1820 went bankrupt.
The B.U.S., led by the brilliant but arrogant Nicholas Biddle, had amassed huge amounts of money and economic clout because of soaring federal revenues during the early 1830s.
Critics said that Biddle and the B.U.S.
He had suffered huge financial losses in the 1790s.
He claimed to speak for Americans who felt that banks favored the rich and powerful in the East.
Jackson distrusted banks because they printed too much paper money.
He wanted the coins used for economic transactions to be gold and silver.
Jackson tried to defeat the recharter of the B.U.S.
The hydra would grow two heads when one was severed.
Jackson disliked Biddle because he was everything that Jackson was not: an Easterner born to wealth, highly educated, and a world traveler.
Ironical, the bidder had voted for Jackson.
Although the Second Bank's charter ran through 1836, the leaders of the newly named National Republican party were paid legal counsel to the B.U.S.
They assured him that the charter would be renewed by Congress.
He said that Jackson thinks that he has scalped Indians.
Jackson's tenacity or his hatred for the B.U.S.
were not appreciated by Biddle and his allies.
Jackson's side was supported by most voters.
Jackson was given a popular issue by the National Republicans on the eve of the election.
The National Republican party endorsed Clay as their presidential candidate and approved the renewal of the B.U.S.
at their nominat ing convention in December 1831.
In the summer of 1832, both houses of Congress passed the bank recharter bil, in part because Biddle used bribes to win votes.
Jackson's chief of staff concluded that the B.U.S.
was involved in such shenanigans.
Jackson might not veto the rechar ter bill because it might cost him reelection.
The Senate was unable to overturn the veto and thus set the likeness of Calhoun on a 1C/ postage stamp.
The future of the Bank of the United States was the main issue in the election.
Jackson wanted the people to decide.
He explained that he had done his duty by vetoing the bill.
Andrew Jackson would veto more congressional bil s than any other president.
His handling of the nullification crisis in South Carolina showed his commitment to nationalism.
Vice President John C. Calhoun was leading Biddle to believe in the bank's future.
He said Jackson became President Jackson's fiercest critic.
He thinks that he has scalped Indians because of his personal feud.
His hatred for the B.U.S.
was frustrated by the changing economic conditions in his home state.
Jackson's side was supported by most voters.
The financial panic of 1819 caused a nationwide depression.
The National Republican party lost almost 70% of their convention in December of 1831, the Anti- Jackson party endorsed Clay as their presidential candidate, and the renewal of the B.U.S.
In the summer of 1832, both houses of Congress passed the bank twice as many as would leave during the recharter bil, in part because Biddle used bribes to win votes.
Jackson was accused of using the bank issue to stir up the poor against raising prices for imported products.
Massachusetts could not convince the Senate to overturn the veto because of a 1C/ postage stamp tariffs.
Jackson wanted the people to decide.
He said that he had done his duty by vetoing the Tariff of 1828 because it favored the interests of New England citizens.
My fellow textile manufacturing over southern agriculture.
In the upcoming election, I will be grateful and happy; if not, a state could "nullify," or veto, a federal law it deemed unconstitutional.
All previous presidents had the same con.
The dispute between states' rights and the people was made worse by the debate in Congress.
In a fiery speech, Senator Robert Y. Hayne argued that the anti- slavery Yankees were invading the South.
Hayne believed that the states had the right to ignore federal laws that they disliked.
The preservation of the Union was more important to him than the independence of the states.
Hayne's arguments were challenged by a Massachusetts senator.
He said that the U.S. Constitution was created by the American people.
"Liberty and Union, now and for ever, one and inseparable" was printed in every newspaper in the nation.
Even Hayne was taken aback.
Hayne had a better argument.
Jackson asked an aide how Webster was doing, and the answer was what he wanted: "He is delivering a most powerful speech."
The president was happy.
The argument for nullification was challenged by the Massachusetts senator.