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12.2 Replication of DNA
The copying of a DNA molecule is referred to as the term.
There is an exact copy of the double helix.
A template is a mold used to make a shape.
Matthew Meselson and Frank Stahl used radioactive nitrogen to determine that each daughter's double helix contains an old strand from the parent's double helix and a new strand.
The blue backbones of the parental DNA molecule are shown in Figure.
Each daughter molecule has a green and blue strand.
The daughter's double helix has the same sequence of bases as the parent's double helix.
A with T and G with C are joined in each parental strand to form a complete daughter strand.
Two helices, each with a daughter and parental strand, are produced.
There are three main events in the process of DNA replication.
The majoridases are involved in DNA replication.
The orientation of the original DNA strands causes the synthesis of the new DNA molecule to occur in opposite directions.
Several genes are involved in the synthesis of the new DNA strands.
The parental strands are separated by a DNA helicaseidase.
Two forks move away from each other.
The template for creating two new DNA molecule is created by the separated strands.
Single strands of DNA are not as stable as a helix.
Short primers are placed on the strands to be replicated.
The strands can be corrected with the help of DNA polymerase.
Each Page 215 of the new daughter strands must also be antiparallel to its matching parental strand, which creates a problem.
It is only possible to make DNA in a 5' to 3' direction.
The new strand in the fork needs to be synthesised in the opposite direction with periodic starts and stops.
After the new strands are made, there is another role for DNA polymerase, which is to convert the short RNA sequence into DNA.
The two double helix molecule that are identical to each other and to the original molecule are the result of the "glue" that mends all the Okazaki fragments together.
During the S phase of the cell cycle, the nucleus of the cell is copied.
The goal of these processes is either to create an exact cell copy or to make a gamete for reproduction, so you have to double the DNA before you can separate it during cell division.
Before a cell can divide, it needs to be replicated.
Cancer, which is characterized by rapid, uncontrollable cell division, can sometimes be treated with drugs that mimic one of the four nucleotides in the DNA.
When these are mistakenly used by the cancer cells, replication stops and the cells die off.
The process of DNA replication is different in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
The DNA molecule is circular and can be replicated in two directions at the same time.
The forks move away from each other until they meet again.
bacteria have a single circular loop chromosome that must be replicated before the cell divides In others, it occurs in two directions.
The process always occurs in the direction of 5' to 3'.
The strands are separated and unwound, and the DNA polymerase is binding to each side of the opening.
Two copies of the chromosomes are separated when the two DNA polymerases meet at a terminated region.
40 minutes is how long it takes for cells to replicate the complete chromosomes.
In eukaryotes, the beginning of DNA replication is along the length of the linear chromosome, and bubbles spread until they meet.
There is a V shape where DNA is being replicated.
The process of replicating is more time consuming because of the long chromosomes.
There are many individual origins of replication that speed up the process.
The end of the chromosomes can't be replicated by DNA polymerase, which is another problem.
The ends of the chromosomes are made of telomeres.
Telomeres are added by telomerase, which adds the correct number of repeats after the chromosomes are replicated.
The ends of the chromosomes are preserved in stem cells.
Uncontrolled cell division in cancer cells can negatively affect cell function.
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