At the opening of an American Youth Culture exhibition in Moscow, Nixon and Khrushchev strolled through a model American home, Religion and the Middle Class assembled to demonstrate the consumer products available to the typical citizen of the United States.
The Baby Boom's standard of living was higher because of Cold War politics.
The rivalry between the United States and the Soviet Union was not settled in the kitchen debate.
The middle-class American Dream was a Suburban aspiration for people who were urban and consumers.
There was a growing number of Americans who embraced that aspiration during the postwar period.
A new middle class was born in the United States after the end of World War II.
Riding a wave of rising incomes, American dominance in the global economy, and Cold War federal spending, the postwar middle class enjoyed the highest standard of living in the world.
The middle class' success could not hide their troubles.
This was not an era of universal conformity.
The most obvious sources of social tension were Jim Crow laws, contradictions in women's lives, and changing sexual mores.
Suburban growth contributed to urban decay and racial segregation.
The Moscow exhibit implied that prosperity was widespread.
The majority of the country did not have access to the suburban lifestyle, which was beyond the reach of the working poor, elderly, immigrants, Mexican Americans, and most African Americans.
A family eats breakfast at a campground.
In the postwar decades, Americans embraced a middle-class, nuclear family ideal.
The postmodern state and the age of liberty was not an inevitable development after the world war.
The United States enjoyed enormous economic growth due to several key elements coming together.
America was poised to enter a boom.
First, for the first time in the nation's the so-called Third World or developing world, two additional develop as for the development of former colonized nations.
The benchmark is the federal government's outlays in the U.S. dollar.
The World Bank for military and domestic programs gave a huge boost to the economy.
The global economy was guided by the Woods system.
The first General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) was established in 1947 and is used to oversee trade rules and practices.
The Pax Americana, a Latin term meaning of an open-market global economy and "American Peace", was used to describe the postwar period.
The United States put on display the technological wonders of American home life at the American National Exhibition in Moscow in 1959.
When Vice President Richard Nixon visited the Soviet Union, he and Nikita Khrushchev had a heated debate about the merits of their systems.
The debate is in progress.
The bald man is pointing his finger.
Nixon's left is occupied by a man who would be Khrushchev's successor.
After stability, the system provided needed economic based on the Pen- American economy.
Defense spending was a part of postwar prosperity.
Defense-related industries entered into a long-term address to the nation in 1961.
Over 60 percent of the income of Boeing, had fostered this defense establishment, Eisenhower General Dynamics, and Raytheon, for instance, came feared its implications: "We must guard against the from military contracts, and the percentages were even acquisition of unwarranted influence, whether sought higher for Lockheed and Republic Aviation Military spending had constituted in peacetime years.
The government partnerships of World War II are the roots of this complex.
10 percent was represented after 1945.
The country was dependent on a robust defense sector for economic growth.
Technology developed for military purposes, such as the complex design of jet airplanes, was easy to transfer to the consumer market.
The Boeing plant in Seattle is pictured in the mid-1950s, when it became one of the leading commercial airplane manufacturers in the world.
The Department of Defense awarded a lot of military contracts to American corporations after World War II.
After 1945, science grew rapidly.
Government and corporate culture became intertwined after the war.
Cold inspired many critics who argued that the obedi War competition for military supremacy spawned both ence demanded of white-collar workers and stifled an arms race and a space race in the United States.
90 percent of the cost of research for men and professionals of earlier years was covered by the federal government, compared to 65 percent by the independent business.
The sociologist, 42 percent for scientific instruments, and even William Whyte painted a somber picture of "organiza 24 percent for automobiles."
Andrew is using new technology to make useful products.
Eisenhower was alarmed that the United States was falling behind in science and technology.
From 1947 to 1975, worker persuaded Congress to appropriate more money for college scholarships and university research.
The University of California could turn out products more efficiently if they were mechanized industries.
The Massachusetts Insti Mechanization did not come without social costs, how tute of Technology, and the University of Michigan.
Millions become the leading research centers in the world over the course of the postwar decades.
Workers and their military-corporate partnership was not the only part of the union that was less enthusiastic.
How are the nation's finances?
The top four firms in tires produced an extraordinary postwar record.
GDP jumped from $213 billion in 1945 to more than that of those in detergents, 70 percent.
The American Chamber of Commerce had a president who was $1 trillion by 1970.
Corporate growth was spurred by the new foreign markets.
Low inflation was featured during ity.
After a burst of high prices in the 1950s, U.S. exports nearly doubled, giving the nation a trade surplus of $5 billion in 1960.
Coca-Cola, Gillette, IBM, and the Vietnam War caused it to stay low until the 1970s.
Mobil made a lot of money abroad.
Americans felt better off than giants because they felt secure about the future.
By 1960, 62 percent of American families owned their homes, compared to 43 percent in 1940.
Income inequality dropped sharply in that complex environment that demanded long-range fore period.
The social responsibility goes to the top tenth of total income.
The GDP rose in both real and constant dollars after the Great Depression.
By the middle of the 1950s, 2.2 million veterans had attended richest Americans, while another 5.6 million had attended trade from the 45 percent it had been in 1940.
One veteran commented that before the GI Bill, society had become more prosperous.
John Kenneth Galbraith argued that the poor trade schools were only an "afterthought" in the minds of economists and that politicians celebrated the new growth.
Today's Rutgers University students earn less than $1,000 a year, compared to 7,000 before the war.
The GI Bill trained nearly half a million people, including 200,000 doctors, dentists, and nurses.
"I see one-third of a nation ill-housed, ill-clad, and higher earning power translated into the con ill-nourished", declared "one-third of the nation" to be sumer spending that drove the postwar economy.
A person who is poorly paid, poorly educated, and poorly housed.
The GI Bill's observer was so impressed with it that he declared it responsible for the middle convergent, even though the bottom remained far behind.
One of every five single- family homes built in the US in 1966 was built in the domestic market.
2.5 million new homes were built in the United States using GI Bill sumer goods for the average person.
The boom that created jobs in the construction industry was different from the consumption and citizenship boom of the 1950s.
More than 6,000 of the 10,000 students at the University of Iowa in 1947 were veterans whose education was funded by the GI Bill.
American universities were bursting at the seams from the huge number of World War II veterans.
The U.S. workforce was one of the best in the world in the 1950s and 1960s because of government financing of college education.
After a new GI Bill was passed in 1952, the two sides seemed to be ans.
They were going to have a long fight.
The outcome did not come without a fight.
In the 20th century, unions staged major strikes in almost all American industries, and employers fought back.
After World War II, they represented the UAW Walter Reuther and CIO president Philip close to 40 percent of the nonfarm workforce.
Although there was a decline after the 1950s, unions still represented a 30 percent wage increase, which would fuel postwar con in 1973.
Their decline was swift.
The General AFL-CIO Information Bureau is in Washington, DC.
The country still has a general acceptance of collective bargain baby's room, a new stove, oven, and refrigerator, and accessories for the strikes.
The result was a rise in real income.
The photo of the house's exterior real income in the 1950s was not mentioned in the article.
More leisure was delivered by unions.
As America's allies built welfare states, biles drove the postwar American economy.
The military-industrial complex did.
More than 25 million unions turned to the bargaining table between 1945 and 1970.
New houses were built in the United States.
Each of the 1950s union contracts required its own supply of new appliances, from refrig pension plans and company-paid health insurance.
Between 1940 and 1951, the American alternative to the Euro 35,000 per year increased from become, in effect, the American alternative to 4 million new refrigerators.
As Reuther boasted, the pass American industry discovered planned obsolescence, which port into the middle class.
The labor-management accord, though impressive, and cars every few years, was never as universal as it seemed.
The postwar lead firms were losing market share to baby boomers.
The consumption was a final vulnerability.
The basic companies when they were infants were focused on developing new baby products.
Managers considered labor posable diapers to be instant formula.
New television programs, manent peace, when they were management accord as a negotiated truce, not per toddlers and young children.
The postwar labor-management accord board games, fast food, TV dinners, and thousands of others were a fleeting event, not a permanent different kinds of toys.
Increased educational "teen culture" with its appropriate clothing, music, levels, growing home ownership, and higher wages all bombarded them.
The answer can be found in the postwar empha close to the weekly disposable income of an entire family.
A typical everyday life in the twentieth century includes three working centers.
There were 7,000 TV sets in American homes.
The teenage girls and boys were restrained by police outside of an Elvis Presley concert.
Elvis, who was instrumental in popularizing rock 'n' roll music among white middle-class teenagers in the mid-1950s, was one example of a broader phenomenon: the creation of the "teenager" as a distinct demographic, cultural category and, perhaps most significantly, consumer group.
Middle-class teenagers had money to spend in the 1950s, and advertisers and entrepreneurs sought ways to win their loyalty.
In ten years, 87 percent of American homes have seen someone tell the most heartrending story of trag on television.
Having won the edy and lost it.
The winner was given a household home, and television was the main product.
Anacin's sales increased before them by 50 percent because of advertising.
By the late 1950s, what Americans saw on televi as long as they sold viewers to advertisers would stay on the air.
Mother was a full-time housewife stars, sports figures, and stimulating graphics to capti and stereotypical female, prone to bad driving and vate viewers.
Tele changed the way products were sold to Amer vision.
Aggressive advertising of new products such as the color television helped fuel the surge in consumer spending during the 1950s.
In the 1951 magazine advertisement, the family is watching a variety program starring singer Dinah Shore, who was the television spokeswoman for Chevrolet cars.
The tune of the little song she sang in praise of the Chevy could be hummed by every American.
Television was never a showcase for the breadth of peer groups and the consumer tastes of young American society, but in the second half of the 1950s.
The teen market broadcasting lost a lot of its ethnic, racial, and class.
The modern state and the age of liberty was shown to the audience in motion pictures.
How did they get involved in rebellion?
The owner of the films company is quoted as saying.
Between 1953 and 1959 there were record sales of teenagers.
By the early 1960s, Holly, many unhappy adults saw in rock 'n' roll music an wood had retooled its business model, shifting away from adults and families to teenagers.
horror, rock 'n' ries on problem teens, and denunciations of the new roll were some of the genres featured in the media.
The popularity of the youth culture was increased by what really defined it.
Both Hollywood and it's music.
Teenagers discovered rock 'n' roll after rejecting the romantic ballads and the music industry found out that they were rebelling in the 1940s.
The founding members of the Supremes were Mary Wilson, Diana Ross, and Florence Ballard, and they produced twelve number-one singles.
The record label owned by Berry Gordy specialized in cross-over acts: black singers who sold records to white audiences.
In the era of Jim Crow, there was a small but noteworthy step towards a less racially segregating American culture.
Many art therapeutic use of religion as an antidote to life's trials was embarked on by writers and jazz musicians.
Peale said anyone could overcome intensely personal, introspective art forms with faith in new experimental projects and positive thinking.
The foundation style known as bebop was laid by Graham, Schuller, musicians and other 1950s evangelicals.
The rise of the televangelists, who created popular ophonist Charlie Parker, and the more subdued television ministries of the 1970s are examples.
As a righteous person opposed to communism, it stood in stark contrast to the rest of society.
The "swing" bands of the 1930s and 1940s were led by Julius and Ethel Rosenberg.
The cultural rebellion of the Beats in the 1960s would inspire a new generation of young rebels who were dissatisfied with both the political and cultural status quo.
Americans were anxious about the spread of "godless communism" and were looking for a reaffirmation of faith.
In 1940, 49 percent of the population were members of the church.
The evangelical Protestant denominations were beneficiaries of a new crop of preachers.
Billy Graham was the most eloquent because of his use of television, radio, and advertising.
Graham's 1949 revival in Los Angeles and his 1957 crusade at Madison Square Garden in New York were seen by hundreds of thousands of Americans.
Billy Graham's religious reawakening was leather to bring Christian conversion to hundreds of people who were designed to mesh with it.
In the 1940s and 1950s, Graham preached to large crowds in Columbia, South Carolina.
These religious people are having babies.
In adulthood, it was almost a citizen's comparison with the politicized evangelism that responsibility, as everyone expected to have several tives struck a distinctly moderate tone.
After a century and a half of decline, it emerged in the 1960s and 1970s.
More babies were born in the six years between 1948 and 1953 than in the previous thirty years.
The average marriage age in the Era of Containment was twenty-two for men and twenty for women.
A bumper crop of children were meant by marriage, family structure, and gender roles.
The average number of children for women who underwent significant changes since the turn of age in the 1930s was 2.4.
The average number of children in the nine counterparts began in the 1950s.
The Great Depression of the 1930's led to the decision of middle-class Americans to limit marriage to a lifetime of shared friendship.
There are more children in the mid-twentieth.
The baby boom peaked in 1957 and family life remained at a high level until the early 1960s.
Nuclear families were celebrated by baby boomers.
During the 1970s, children were prized for jobs, the labor market and women's roles were appreciated.
The view became tight.
Cold War politics helped strengthen the birth of domesticity when career-oriented baby boomers of family life began having children in the 1980s.
The song "Gotta Make Up for Lost Time" was a hit in 1945.
The families formed after The American Birthrate, 1860 World War II: First, marriages were remarkably stable.
The long-term downward trend in the divorce rate began to reverse in the mid-1960s.
The married couples were interested in American birthrate.
penicillin was introduced in 1943, streptomycin work and family life were shaped by two powerful forces.
One was in1945 and the other in1946.
The middle-class domestic ideal in which women were able to get a vaccine for a disease was the reason why Dr. Salk was expected to raise children and attend to other duties as a national hero.
The free distribution of Salk's vaccine home and the dedication of their husbands' happi in the nation's schools followed by Dr. Albert ness.
The nation's educational market was given a boost by the baby boom.
The pay system needed to be boosted for most working-class women.
Middle-class parents receive America's check to help their family.
The first college-educated generation placed a high value on middle-class women finding jobs in the professions on education.
Suburban parents approved 90 percent and business was dominated by men.
The market offered mostly expenditures accounted for 7.2 percent of the gross "women's jobs", double the 1950 level.
Little room for the baby boom generation swelled college enrolls in the 1960s.
The idea that a woman's place was in the home was not new.
The postwar obsession with the State University of New York systems added doz ninity and motherhood and offered students in the 19th century's notion of domesticity.
Middle-class parents want to keep baby boom children with normal female identity and healthy and happy.
The advice of experts was relied on by A.
New career women are depicted as social misfits.
Spock's approach to consumer culture emphasized women's domestic ating.
As a purchasing agent for home and family, your little paperback is still in my cupboard.
Spock was part of a generation of women who shopped for the family.
Their experts' advice was often not reassuring to women.
Spock and others argued that if contributions took them outside their mothers, they should go into the workforce.
Half of all women workers were married in 1954.
Americans faced new opportunities at the dawn of the postwar era.
The GI Bill changed the lives of many former soldiers who attended college.
The ideal role of housewife and mother was under pressure.
Communism, which Americans feared but little understood, was on the horizon, both in reality and in the American imagination.
The ordinary lives of Americans were shaped by racial segregation.
The experiences of coming of age in the 1940s and 1950s are recorded here.
It was official policy that no American journalism existed, but I knew that Art Buchwald was one of the best-known humorists in the world.
He was an ordinary ex who could use the GI Bill to go to college.
I couldn't bring myself to take that kind of job.
I was very involved with them after the war.
I showed up at the counter and said I was radical.
was accepted as a full-time student under the Negroes and the working class.
Bill, I was entitled to seventy-five dollars a month and the Un-American Activities Committee.
You certainly didn't think of a woman who was like a mother to her thirteen children when you found loyalty oaths, Communist splits and schisms, and a boardinghouse that was run by Russia, China and the UN.