Unable to afford decent housing, obtain steady employment, or protect their children, the poor sometimes erupted in violent protest and rage.
In the countryside, the decisions of the nobility or clergy to increase taxes and other burdens can lead to violence.
In towns and cities the quality of life of the poor is determined by the price of bread.
Rioters sought immediate relief rather than structural change in these episodes.
When the Crown tried to solve its fiscal crisis, that changed.
The crisis began because of the cost of the War of the Austrian Succession.
Louis XV tried to impose new taxes on the nobility, but this led to protests.
The king imposed emergency fiscal measures after new debt from the Seven Years War deepened the crisis.
The poor lived in poverty.
She works in a shop where she mends socks.
The growing opposition of French courts made it difficult for the twenty-two-year-old Louis XVI to keep his throne.
Despite this warning, the king decided to support the American Revolution, delaying collapse by borrowing enormous sums and disguising the growing debt in misleading fiscal accounts.
More than half of France's national budget was required to pay interest on its debt by the end of the war.
The Assembly of Notables was called in 1787 to approve a reform of the economy and fiscal policy.
Despite the fact that the king's advisers selected this assembly from the high nobility, the judiciary, and the clergy, these representatives of privilege were unwilling to support the proposed reforms and new taxes.
The General in 1789 led to narrow self-interest and greed of the rich, who would not tolerate an increase in their own French Revolution.
The Third Estate's representatives were mostly men of substantial property, but some of them were angry with the king's ministers and wanted France to become a constitutional monarchy with an elected legislature.
Many nobles and members of the clergy sympathized with the reform agenda of the Third Estate, but deep internal divisions over procedural and policy issues limited the power of the First and Second Estates.
Clergy and nobles joined the Third Estate.
The Third Estate, with allies from the other estates, called itself the National Assembly after six weeks of stalemate.
The king locked them out of their meeting place because he was afraid of their growing aggressiveness.
They pledged to write a constitution after moving to an indoor tennis court.
The king's desire to solve the nation's fiscal crisis has been swept away by the ideas of the era that the people are sovereign and the legitimacy of rulers depends on their fulfilling the people's will.
Military forces were moved to Versailles to prepare for a confrontation with the National Assembly.
The people of Paris stopped him.
The economic depression of 1785 was caused by a succession of bad harvests that caused bread prices to go up.
Almost a third of the Parisian work force was unemployed by the time the Estates General met.
There was hunger and anger in the neighborhoods.
When the people of Paris heard that the king was massing troops in Versailles to arrest the people, they began to mobilize.
The futile defense of the Bastille cost ninety-eight lives.
Paris's chief judge was stuck on pikes.
There were uprisings by peasants in the country.
Peasants destroyed documents that recorded their traditional obligations.
They refused to give up their cal rights, which were adopted by the pay taxes and dues.
Forced to recognize the fury of the French National Assembly at ing through rural areas, the National Assembly voted to end traditional obligations and priv the beginning of the French nobility and church.
Revolution, having won this victory.
The Bastille storming on July 14, 1789 is still celebrated by the French as a national holiday.
The French declaration was more expansive.
Women in the garment industry and small shopkeepers were hardest hit.
The poor used to meet daily in angry assembly in public markets.
The link between material deprivation of the French poor and political ambitions of the French bourgeoisie was forged here.
Thousands of market women went to Ver sailles on October 5.
"The point is that we want bread," they shouted as they forced their way into the National Assembly.
The royal family was forced to move to Paris.
In the next two years, Assembly achieved a completely restructured French society.
The nobility was abolished as a hereditary class after it passed a new constitution.
There were trade barriers and monopolies in France.
The church's lands were seized by legislators and used as a basis for a new paper currency and for the election of priests.
Many Catholics joined a counterrevolutionary movement after the Assembly forced priests to take a loyalty oath.
Austria and Prussia threatened to intervene in support of the monarchy after the French king was weakened.
The Legislative Assembly declared war.
Although the war went badly for French forces, people across France responded patriotically to foreign invasions, forming huge new volunteer armies and mobilizing national resources to meet the challenge.
The French Revolution entered its most radical phase during this time of national crisis.
On August 10, 1792, a crowd invaded his palace in Paris, forcing the king to seek protection in the Legislative Assembly, which suspended his authority and ordered his imprisonment.
The National Convention was created because of these actions.
Rumors of counterrevolutionary plots kept working-class neighborhoods in an uproar, and in September a mob surged through the city's prisons, killing nearly half the prisoners.
The newly elected National Convention convicted Louis XVI of treason, sentenced him to death, and proclaimed France a republic.
The king was guillotined in January 1793.
Europe's powers allied against France were affected by these events.
The National Convention was held in September.
The members of the Mountain were more sympathetic than the Girondists.
Robespierre used the popular press and political clubs to forge an alliance with the French Revolution because of the French economy in crisis and Paris suffering from high unemployment.
His working class was volatile.
He was able to purge and execute many of his enemies in the National Convention because of his growing strength in the streets.
The Revolution was helped by the decisive leadership provided by these women.
Every time there was a confrontation with conservative forces, armed women were present.
The National Convention, the most radical legislative body of the revolutionary era,chose to suppress the militant feminist forces that had prepared the ground for its creation.
Robespierre and his allies unleashed a period of persecution called the "Reign of Terror" in response to rebellion in the provinces and foreign invasion.
Deaths in prison claimed 40,000 lives and 300,000 were imprisoned during the Terror.
The government forced priests to marry in new actions against the clergy.
Time was subject to change.
A republican calendar divides 30 days into 10 days.
The Christian meaning of Sunday disappeared from the calendar.
The Revolution was secured from foreign and domestic enemies by the spring of 1794.
The victims were some of Robespierre's closest political allies.
The Guillotine is the most powerful symbol of the revolutionary era.
Joseph Ignace Guillotin was a physician and member of the French Constituent Assembly.
The use of a beheading device was recommended by Guillotin in 1789.
He wanted to replace hangings and beheadings with an axe.
Both forms of execution were done with little skill, leading to gruesome and painful deaths.
Guillotin believed that a properly designed machine would produce painless deaths and remove the social distinction between nobles and commoners.
Execution by beheading was the common sentence for capital crimes after 1791.
The machine was designed by the secretary of the College of Surgeons.
Once directed to produce a suitable device, Louis, in many ways a typical technician of his time, systematically examined devices used elsewhere and experimented until satisfied with his results.
The guillotine became the physical symbol of the Terror because it seemed to remove human agency, and therefore revenge, from the death penalty.
The arbitrary violence of the French Revolution came to symbolize the guillotine, a more humane and democratic alternative to traditional executions.
The Convention voted to arrest Robespierre and execute him along with nearly a hundred of his allies after the French victories.
The radical reforms were undone by the Convention.
Emergency economic controls held down prices and protected the working class.
There was toleration for violent demonstrations.
It allowed the General who overthrew the Catholic Church to regain much of its former influence, but it did not return the church's con the French Directory in fiscated wealth.
The emperor established a voting process that reduced the power of the people, and created a new executive of the French in 1804, after putting in place a more conservative constitution that protected property.
After losing the election of 1797, the Directory refused to give up power and ended up in the republican phase of the Revolution.
Political authority was defeated and died because of coercive force.
Without virtue is powerless, there is a Vindication of the Rights of Woman.
It has been said that terror is the principle of government.
The enemies of the Republic deduce a great truth: the characteristic of popular liberty, and you will be right.
The government's confidence in the people and severity towards government of the revolution are related.
Society owes protection only to peaceable citizens, but the tempest roars, and the revolution imposes on only citizens in the Republic are republicans.
Our weakness and strength are not our enemies.
Conflicts over representation resulted in the assassins who tear our country apart, truth's ascendancy over imposture, and the rights of the public the intriguers who buy the consciences that hold the people's The American and French Revolutions.
The expansion of the right to vote and creation of representative institutions was the answer in the United States.
The French Revolution went in a different direction.
Over the improvements which are gaining ground in the formation of vestiges of oppression, which separates man principles of policy, and I flatter myself, it will be allowed by from man with a fence of iron, sophisticated and humane being that a political system and made.
The only excuse that can be made for the aggressiveness of the Parisians is to observe that they had not any confidence in the laws, which they had always found to be merely to catch small flies.
When justice, or Barbara H. Solomon and Paula S. Berggren, is so partial, the day of retribution will come in 1983.
Napoleon organized Europe's first popular dictatorship.
He succeeded because of his military reputation, which promised order to a society that had been 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217
Napoleon wanted to realize France's dream of dominating Europe while providing effective protection for people and property at home.
The agreement gave French Catholics the right to practice their religion, but it also gave the French government the power to keep priests on the payroll.
Napoleon won the support of the peasantry and the middle class by asserting two basic principles from the moderate first stage of the French Revolution: equality in law and protection of property.
Napoleon declared himself emperor and France an empire in 1804, winning over some members of the nobility.
He continued to deny political rights for women despite his willingness to change.
The Civil Code denied women basic political rights and only allowed them to participate in the economy with the guidance and supervision of fathers and husbands.
Many individual rights were denied by the Napoleonic system.
Free speech was limited.
Most opposition newspapers disappeared because of criticism of the government.
These policies were enforced by spies and informers.
The success of French arms was crucial to the success of the Napoleonic system.
No European state was able to defeat the French military until Napoleon's fall.
Prussia and Austria became allies of France.
Britain, protected by its navy, was able to stop Napoleon's plans.
Napoleon invaded Portugal and Spain in the 19th and 20th century.
Great Britain supported the Spanish and Portuguese in their fight against the French.
Napoleon made the decision to invade Russia because he was fed up with the events on the Iberian Peninsula.
The heavy burden of debt was caused by the support of the abandoned city.
During the retreat, the American Revolution forced Louis XVI to call for a Russian winter.
There was a remnant of 30,000 that made it back to France.
The National Assembly was formed by some members of the nobility and clergy after the debacle in Russia.
Napoleon abdicated the throne in Paris because he couldn't reform by storming the Bastille.
The island of Elba was exiled in April 1814.
The Legislative Assembly executed the French monarchy.
Napoleon king initiated the Terror.
He was defeated in 1814 in his final exile.
The democratic legacy of the French Revolution was conquered by the dictatorship of Napoleon, but revolutionary ideology was taking hold in Europe and the Americas.
The French Revolution promoted nationalism and republicanism.
There was a new round of struggles for independence in the Americas after the American and French Revolutions.
The first successful slave rebellion took place in Saint Domingue, a small French colony on the western half of the island of Hispaniola, because of the news of revolutionary events in France.
In Europe, the spread of revolutionary fervor was met by an alliance of conservative monarchs.
Saint Domingue was one of the richest colonies in the Americas in 1789.
Its production of sugar, cotton, indigo, and coffee accounted for two-thirds of France's tropical imports and generated one-third of all French foreign trade.
The wealth was dependent on a brutal slave regime.
Slaves in Saint Domingue's were subjected to harsh punishments and poor living conditions.
The demand for African slaves was created by the high mortality and low fertility rates.
Most of the colony's 500,000 slaves were African-born.
A group of men sent a delegation to Paris to get more home rule and economic freedom for the people of Haiti.
They wanted more political sent representatives.
Representing a large class of free black planters and urban merchants who supported owned slaves, they sought to limit race discrimination, not to end slavery.
Rich planters, poor whites, and the gens de couleur all pursued their narrow interests in the vacuum that resulted.
There was no way to limit the violence once the control of the slave owners slipped because of the hatred of the slaves and the grievances of the free people of color.
The free black and slave populations repaid this cruel treatment in kind.
The slaves burned crops and killed their masters.
The emerging leadership relied on elements of African political practice and revolutionary effective for independence from France to mobilize and direct the rebelling slaves.
The abolition of slavery in all French possessions strengthened Toussaint politically.
Napoleon sent a veteran army to Haiti to fight against the Haitians in a tropical forest.
Great Britain was the last European power left at war with Napoleon.
Because of the loss of the French fleet at the Battle of Trafalgar in 1805, Napoleon was unable to threaten Britain with invasion, and Britain was able to assist the resistance movements in Spain and Portugal.
The Haitian revolutionaries were forced to defeat British and French military interventions in order to end slavery and gain national independence.
There is an interactive map of Santo Domingo.
Toussaint gave the French government no effective role in local affairs.
The abolition of slavery and Toussaint's political position were threatened when the revolution in France began.
They supported their chains only as long as they were happy.
Napoleon sent a large military force to reestablish French colonial authority in Saint Domingue in 1802.
French forces captured Toussaint and sent him to France, where he died in prison.
The tide turned after the loss of thousands of lives to yellow fever and the resistance of the revolutionaries.
The free republic of Haiti joined the United States as an independent nation in the Western Hemisphere in 1804.
The Revolutionary Changes in the Atlantic World of the 17th century were overturned and dynasties were replaced with interlopers.
International borders were ignored and long-established political institutions were overturned.
The nobility and church were at risk.
The goal of the Congress of Vienna was to create a stable France that would be the best guarantee of peace in the future.
Although most of the allies received some territorial gains, it reestablished the French monarchy and recognized France's borders.
A balance of power was needed to counterbalance a strong and stable France.
Prussia, Austria, and Russia formed a separate alliance to fight nationalist movements that mimicked the French Revolution.
Military force was used to defeat liberal revolutions in Spain and Italy in 1820.
The Holy Alliance tried to suppress republican and nationalist ideas in universities and the press.
Despite the power of the conservative monarchs, popular support for national self- determination and democratic reform grew throughout Europe.
Greece has been under Ottoman rule since the 15th century.
The Greeks launched an independence movement in the 18th century.
Conservatives opposed Greek independence, but European artists and writers supported intervention.
Russia, France, and Great Britain forced the Ottoman Empire to recognize Greek independence in 1830.
Charles X was the new king.
A mass uprising in Paris forced him to abdicate after he repudiated the constitution.
The British aristocracy and the Conservative Party were afraid of mass movements of any kind because of the Revolutionary violence in France.
The Corn Laws limited the import of foreign grains.
The poor would be forced to pay more for their bread because the laws favored the wealthy who produced grain.
The government used troops to crush the protest in Manchester when poor consumers organized to overturn the laws.
English reformers increased the power of the House of Commons, redistributed votes from agricultural to industrial districts, and increased the number of voters.
Although the most radical demands of reformers, called Chartists, were defeated, new labor and economic reforms addressing the grievances of workers were put in place.
Conservatives held the upper hand despite limited political reform in France and Great Britain.
There were upheavals across Europe due to demo cratic reform.
Adult men Europe were given by reformers.
The monarchy in voting rights, abolition of slavery in French colonies, and the repeal of the death penalty led to the overthrow of France.
In Germany, Austria, Italy, and Parisian workers' demands for programs to reduce unemployment caused conflicts with the middle class, which wanted to protect property rights.
French troops crushed the workers when they rose up against the government.
The reestablish failed.
After three years, he overturned the constitution and proclaimed himself Emperor Napoleon III.
Belgians declared their independence from Holland after the uprising that overturned the restored monarchy in France.
Similar uprisings combining nationalism and a desire for self governance failed in Poland and Italy.
The painting shows the popular nature of the Belgian uprising by bringing to the barricades men, women, and children drawn from both the middle and the working classes.
In the 19th century reformers in Hungary, Italy, Bohemia, and elsewhere pressed for greater national self-determination from the Austro-Hungarian Empire.
Students and workers in Vienna took to the streets when the monarchy did not meet their demands.
Metternich, the symbol of reaction, fled Vienna in disguise as revolution spread throughout the Empire.
The new Austrian emperor used Russian military assistance and Austrian troops to reestablish his authority.
Middle-class reformers and workers in Berlin joined forces to force the king of Prussia to accept a liberal constitution.
The assembly was supposed to write a constitution and negotiate national integration, but it was diverted to deal with diplomatic conflicts.
Frederick William IV prevented constitutional reform and unification.
The slaves of Saint Domingue, led by Toussaint L'Ouverture, were part of the republican objectives.
The monarchs gained independence after overthrew slavery.
A long period of revolutionary upheaval in the Atlantic world began in the last decades of the eighteenth century.
Costly wars in Europe and along Europe's colonial frontiers in the Americas and Asia forced European monarchs to impose new and unpopular taxes.
These changes were initiated by the American Revolution.
The citizens of the new American republic created the most democratic government of the time after defeating Britain.
Many Europeans saw the experiment as proof of the efficacy of the Enlightenment's most revolutionary political ideas.
The compromises over slavery that made the Constitution possible in 1787 failed and the new nation nearly disintegrated after 1860.
The French Revolution temporarily led to a more radical form of democracy, but it also led to the destruction of western Europe and the deaths of thousands of people.
The idea of democracy and equality far beyond the boundaries of the American Revolution was propelled by the French Revolution.
The Haitian Revolution, set in motion by events in France, created the second independent nation of the Western Hemisphere but also delivered a powerful blow to the institution of slavery.
The French Revolution and the wars that followed promoted the rise of Napoleon Bonaparte and authoritarianism in Europe.
Each revolution had its own personality.
The American Revolution was less destructive than the revolutions in France and Haiti.
American revolutionaries did not overturn a colonial social order that depended on slavery in most of the southern colonies.
French and Haitian revolutionaries faced more powerful oppositions and greater social inequalities than their American counterparts.
The resistance of the elites led to more violence.
The bloodshed and destructiveness of these revolutions were intensified by foreign interventions.