The proper time and place for the synthesis of necessary proteins is important for a cell to function properly.
The cells control or regulate the synthesis of their genes.
Each cell controls when and how its genes are expressed in a complex multi-cellular organisms.
There must be internal chemical mechanisms that control when a gene is expressed, how much of it is made, and when it's time to stop making it because it's no longer needed.
The regulation of genes conserves space and energy.
It would take a lot of energy to express all the genes at the same time, so it's more efficient to turn on the genes when they're needed.
Only expressing a subset of genes in each cell saves space because DNA must be unwound from its tightly coiled structure to translate it.
Cells would have to be huge if every cell had a certain amount of a certain molecule in it.
Malfunctions in the control of gene expression can lead to the development of many diseases, including cancer.
Understanding how a gene codes for a function in a cell is the first step to understanding how gene expression is regulated.
The process occurs in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Single-celled organisms that lack a cell nucleus have their DNA float freely in the cell cytoplasm.
The processes of transcription and translation occur at the same time.
The transcription stops when there is no need for it.
The regulation of DNA transcription is the primary method of controlling what type of protein and how much of it is expressed in a prokaryotic cell.
The next steps occur automatically.
More transcription occurs when moreProtein is required.
The control of gene expression in prokaryotic cells is mostly at the transcriptional level.
Eukaryotic cells have more to do with their complexity.
The nucleus of a cell is where the DNA is contained.
ribosomes translate the newly synthesisedRNA into theProtein is then transported out of the nucleus into the cytoplasm.
The processes of translation and transcription are separated from one another by the nuclear membranes.
Gene expression can be regulated at all stages of the process.
Both prokaryotic transcription and translation occur in the same place.
Eukaryotic genes are expressed in the nucleus and in the cytoplasm.
Posttranslational modifications of proteins may lead to further regulation.
There are differences in the regulation of gene expression between prokaryotes and eukaryotes.
In subsequent modules, the regulation of gene expression is discussed.
Contain nucleus DNA is found in the nucleus, but it is confined to the nuclear compartment, and it takes place 888-609- 888-609- 888-609- 888-609- 888-609- 888-609- 888-609- There is a process of translation in the cytoplasm.
Control of the amount of transcription is what prokaryotic cells can do.
The control of gene expression became more complex as the cells evolved.
The evolution of eukaryotic cells brought about the separation of important cellular components and processes.
There is a nuclear region with the DNA.
There were two different cellular compartments for transcription and translation.
It was possible to control the expression of genes by regulating the transcription in the nucleus and also by controlling the translation of genes outside the nucleus.
Gene regulation is done to conserve cell resources.
Other regulatory processes may be defensive.
There are cellular processes that protect the cell from infections.
If the cell could shut off its genes for a short period of time, it would be able to survive an attack.