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41.1 Osmoregulation and Osmotic Balance
The body's fluids include blood, the cytosol within cells, and the fluid that exists in the spaces between cells and tissues.
Some types of solutes and water can be permeable.
Solutions on two sides of a semi-permeable membrane can equalize in solute concentration by the movement of solutes and/or water.
When a cell is placed in a solution with higher salt concentration, it can cause the cell to lose water in the hypertonic environment.
The osmotic pressure on the side of the cell that is semipermeable is equalized by the concentration of solutes inside and outside the cell.
Cells in a hypertonic environment shrink due to the loss of water.
Cells swell in a hypotonic environment due to the intake of water.
Cells don't shrink or swell because the blood has an isotonic environment.
The body is not isolated.
The system has a constant input of water and electrolytes.
Excess fluids and waste are transported to the kidneys to help maintain osmotic balance.
There is a tendency to accumulate toxic waste and water if there is no mechanism to regulate osmotic pressure.
Specific concentrations of important electrolytes in the three major fluid compartments are regulated by mammalian systems.
The volume of the fluid compartments can change temporarily because osmotic pressure is regulated by the movement of water.
osmotic pressures have a direct bearing on blood pressure because they are one of the fluid components.
The ionization of sodium chloride in water means that it is a component ion.
In water, NaCl splits into the Na+ and the chloride ion.
The most important cations in body fluids are Na+, K+, calcium, magnesium, and carbonate.
During urination and perspiration, elytes are lost from the body.
Athletes are encouraged to replace fluids and electrolytes during periods of increased activity.
The concentration of solutes in a solution affects the Osmotic Pressure.
It is not dependent on the size of the solute molecule and is proportional to the number of solute atoms.
The effect on osmotic pressure per mass is greater for compounds that do not dissociate in water than for compounds that do.
Water can pass through a barrier.
It would be impossible to maintain specific concentrations of ion in each fluid compartment because they need special mechanisms to cross the semi-permeable membranes in the body.
Facilitation and active transport can be used to accomplish this movement.
There are channels for moving the solute.
Active transport requires energy in the form of ATP conversion, carrier proteins, or pumps.
Understanding how solute concentrations are measured is needed in order to calculate osmotic pressure.
The gram molecular weight of the solute is defined as one mole.
The weight of sodium chloride is 58.44.
The mole of salt weighs 58.44 grams.
One liter of water is equal to one kilogram of water if the solvent is water.
The mEq/L is equal to the ion concentration in millimoles and is used to express the concentration of solutions.
The ion present in the solution and the charge on the ion are taken into account.
If an ion has a charge of one, one milliequivalent is equal to one millimole.
If there is a charge of two in an ion, it is equal to 0.25 millimoles.
The milliosmole is the number of solutes per kilogram of solvent.
Body fluids can be kept within the range of 280 to 300 mOsm.
The human body cannot adapt to drinking water which is hypertonic in comparison to body fluids, so people lost at sea are at risk of severe dehydration.
The term stenohaline means "fish that can tolerate only a relatively narrow range of salinity."
Most of the fish are restricted to either freshwater or saltwater.
They are not capable of osmotic regulation in the opposite environment.
For a few fishes like salmon, it is possible to spend part of their life in freshwater and seawater.
The salmon and molly are referred to as euryhaline organisms.
These fish don't drink a lot of water.
They achieve electrolyte balance by transporting salts through the gills, instead of passing a lot of urine.
The concentrations of their body fluid correspond to the concentration in the water.
The blood of sharks contains two compounds that are similar to urea and trimethylamine oxide.
This doesn't mean that their electrolyte composition is the same as seawater.
They store large concentrations of urea in the sea.
ureotelic animals are animals that produce urea.
The disruption of peptide bonds that would occur in other animals if they were exposed to the same levels of urea is prevented by the stabilization of proteins by the TMAO.
The rectal glands of sharks help in osmoregulation.
In freshwater or saltwater environments, fish must use different mechanisms to survive.
The process of removing waste and excess water from the blood is called Dialysis.
It is necessary to artificially rid the body of waste when the kidneys fail.
This is important to keep patients alive.
In some cases, the patients have to go through artificialalysis until they are ready for a transplant.
In people who aren't candidates for a transplant, it's a necessity.
The technicians work in hospitals and clinics.
Some roles in this field include equipment development and maintenance, but most work in direct patient care.
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