ChAPTER 27 -- Part 8: Asian Transitions in an Age of Global
Christian missionaries arrived in the islands to convert the Japanese to Roman Catholicism.
By the 1570s, the political center was beginning to coalesce around Nobu naga and his friends.
Nobunaga took the missionaries under his protection and encouraged them to preach their faith to his people because he saw Christianity as a counter force to the Buddhist orders that were resisting his rise to power.
In this late 16th-century portrait, Hideyoshi of conversion that they had followed in India and China, converted some, showing the discipline and self-confidence that made of the daimyo and their samurai retainers.
The Jesuits believed he could unify Japan.
The samurai class ing Western clothes encouraged their artists to copy Western paintings because they were expected to be literate and well-mannered by the convention.
The Japanese people were persuaded that Nobunaga's conversion would bring them into the Christian fold.
They reported hundreds of thousands of converts by the early 1580s even without it.
The Laws for the Shogunate waslukewarm toward the missionary enterprise after Nobunaga was murdered.
The fall from favor of the missionaries resulted from the fact that the Buddhist sects had been defeated.
Hideyoshi and his followers were alarmed by reports of converts refusing to obey their overlords' commands when they believed them to be in conflict with their newly adopted Christian beliefs.
The new religion posed a threat to the established social order.
There were signs that the Europeans might try to conquer the islands with military expeditions.
The Japanese were impressed with the firearms and pugnacity of the Europeans, and they did not take threats of invasion lightly.
Fears that merchants and missionaries might subvert the existing social order led to official measures to restrict foreign activities in Japan in the late 1580s.
A panoramic Japanese painting from the early 1600s shows a number of major forms of interaction between Europe and Asia.
The artist exaggerates the height of the fore and castles of the Portuguese ship that just arrived in the harbor.
Exotic products such as peacocks and tiger skins, which are also to be sold in the marketplace at the right of the painting, demonstrate the ways in which the Portuguese had become carriers between different areas in Asia.
Efforts to convert the Japanese to Christianity were underway in this area of the kingdom according to the missionaries waiting to greet the Portuguese sea captain.
Christian missionaries and converts were persecuting by Hideyoshi.
His successor, Ieyasu, banned the faith in 1614.
European missionaries were driven out of the islands and those who remained underground were hunted down and killed.
Japanese converts were tortured and executed if they refused to abandon their faith.
By the 1630s, the persecutions against Christians who tried to practice their faith in secret had become so intense that thousands of converts in the western regions joined in to fight the local daimyo and the shogun.
Christianity in Japan was reduced to an underground faith due to the suppression of the uprisings.
The persecution of the Christians grew under Ieyasu and his successors.
All Japanese ships were forbidden to trade or even sail overseas in the 1630s, after foreign traders were confined to a few cit ies.
One after another, the European nations decided that trading in Japan was no longer worth the risk.
Only a limited number of Dutch and Chinese ships were allowed to carry goods in Japan by the 1640s.
Christian ideas were banned from reentering the country after the export of silver and copper was restricted.
Foreigners were allowed to live and travel in limited areas during the 1640s.
The new ideology emphasized the revival of indigenous culture and Japan's unique historical experience at the expense of Chinese imports such as Confucianism.
The Japanese elite kept up with developments in Japan in the 18th century through contacts with the small such as Confucianism.
After two centuries of European involvement in south of European ideas, inventions, and modes of social organization and southeast Asia, most of the peoples of the area had been little during the first centuries of expansion.
The key that was affected by attempts to build trading empires and win Christian con European devices were often seen as toys by Asian verts.
European sailors added new routes to the Asian rulers as gifts.
The Cape of Good Hope between Europe and the Indian Ocean and the connection between the Philippine Islands and Mexico in China were the most important of these.
Europeans need safe harbors and storage empire in a global system.
The West's surge in exploration and commercial activity resulted in global history, as well as the gradual decline of some indigenous commercial activity.
The Muslim cities on the east coast of Africa and the fortress town of Malacca are examples of this.
The principle of sea warfare was duced into what had been a peaceful state by the Europeans and the Japanese.
The missionary world is promising.
The Asian trading system was stifled by the Tokugawa shoguns in the 16th century and the Europeans in the 17th century.
The conclusion was that they were better off adapting to the existing Ming emperors and the nomadic Qing dynasty from the mid-1600s.
European merchants were confined to a few Asia for thousands of years because of the exchanges between Europe and aggressive Europeans.
The major exchanges are remote from their capitals.
The policy of overseas expansion pursued by the interac dynasty had no relation to Europe or the Americas.
The emergence of important new food plants into India, China, and the rise of European dominance in maritime Asia was removed when China again turned inward discoveries in the long-isolated Western Hemisphere.