Sociology studies cultures and societies and can have a large effect on an individual's environment.
There are a few theories and important concepts of sociology that relate to the discipline of social psychology.
The study of people interacting with each other is called social psychology.
A shared culture, a common set of beliefs, behaviors, values, and material symbols are what societies, organizations of individuals have.
Collective social identities are placed upon individuals from others, and individuals form their own personal identities about themselves.
Personal identities are words that describe personality, such as kind, generous, thoughtful, insightful, etc., while social identities are how individuals are seen in the context of their society.
Social identities can be related to religion, work, appearance, disability, gender, sexual orientation, immigration status, or any other label that societies have come to understand through their shared culture.
Someone's social identities might be lawyer, young adult, Muslim, and female.
These are factors of how individuals are seen by others in society, which may affect social interactions.
Some individuals have an advantage in some societies while others have a disadvantage.
Those who have citizenship in a certain country have more power than those who are not.
In the United States, adults hold more power than children and the elderly.
The effects and nature of multiple social identities is referred to as intersectionality.
A person who identifies as female, Latina, and bisexual can give a glimpse into each of these social identities and how they intersect.
The primary group is usually made up of family and close friends.
These relationships are long-term and deep.
Individuals spend time with others in their primary groups for the sake of spending quality time with them.
A secondary group is a group of friends and acquaintances who share the same interests or values.
A person may take classes at school with classmates who share the same interest in the material or participate in a running group with others who share the same passion for running.
The idea of sameness and difference is formed by these identities within societies.
Groups of people with the same identity are referred to as in-groups.
The accountants would be considered an out-group if they shared an in-group with other teachers.
In- and out- groups can create harmful situations when one group believes it is superior to another.
Ethnocentrism refers to holding values or beliefs of one's own in-group as better than those of another's, which can lead to conflict, prejudice, and more.
Cultural relativism is the idea that the beliefs and values of one's in-group may be different than those of another, but that they are not necessarily better or worse.
In order to fit in to a new society, some individuals try to take on another's culture in order to enter a new in-group.
Immigrants and individuals are more likely to be assimilted in a new culture.
People who don't shed their former identities but instead keep elements of their own culture and show multiculturalism, are called individuals who don't shed their former identities but rather keep elements of their own culture and show multiculturalism.
People who emigrate, study abroad, or even visit other cultures may experience culture shock.
Culture shock is the way in which values can be seen differently in different cultures.
Language barriers and small social faux pas are examples of culture shock.
The time it takes for cultures to catch up to technological innovations is called cultural lag.
Over the course of a lifetime, individuals play roles within groups and societies that may change or conflict with each other.
A person could have roles of father, husband, son, and teacher at the same time.
When two or more of these roles are at odds with each other, it's called role conflict.
College students are in college to study, but are also at school to meet friends from around the world and learn to take care of themselves on their own.
The strain can be created by the balance of study and experience.
When a person leaves behind a role to take on another, it means the person leaves the role of student and takes on the role of employee.
There are a variety of social institutions designed to promote and transmit social norms to its members.
Family, religion, government, economy, politics, health, medicine, and education are all social institutions and have an impact on the way individuals interact with each other.
Family and religion both provide a sense of purpose and connection to the supernatural.
Governments create laws to maintain order in societies, and various structures of governments can affect individuals' quality of life.
Transactions between individuals, organizations, and groups are managed by economies.
Mental health can change dramatically from culture to culture with regard to health and medicine.
Some cultures will treat a condition as a sickness while others will not.
Education is an institution that gives knowledge from generation to generation and teaches people about the values of the country.
Education is free for everyone, but not everyone has the same opportunities.
Unfair treatment of certain groups by organizations is referred to asstitutionalized discrimination.
Certain groups can be put at a social disadvantage because of unintentionally or intentionally created rules.
Equal opportunities for access to quality education and healthcare can be lead to bystitutionalized discrimination.
Availability and accessibility are related to discrimination.
Whether something exists for a person to use is referred to as availability.
It might be more difficult for people who live in a low-income housing complex to get to the grocery stores if they don't have any nearby.
This scenario of not having good grocery stores is called a desert food.
Because people don't have cars or other ways to get to the grocery stores, they don't have healthy food to eat.
A person can use the tools and resources that are available to them.
One student in a class is visually impaired, but the class uses a particular textbook.
The book is not usable to the student even though it is available for purchase.
It would have to be made accessible through a computer program.
Some of the phenomena we observe when people interact are called group dynamics.
Social facilitation is an increase in performance on a task when performed in the presence of others.
If you play sports, you may have experienced this effect.
Social inhibition occurs when the presence of others makes performance worse.
People who give speeches experience social shyness.
When a task is easy or well-practiced, people experience social facilitation, while when a task is difficult or novel, they suffer from social inhibition.
Social loafing is an effect that occurs when people interact in groups, as a result of the size of the group.
If you are assigned a group project, you may put in less effort than you would if it were an individual project, hoping that the other group members will pick up some of your slack.
People are prone to social loafing when they think their performance isn't being monitored.
Being in groups can exaggerate our initial attitudes.
Group polarization is a effect.
Group polarization occurs when a judgment or decision of a group is more extreme than what individual members of the group would have reached on their own.
If people with negative racial attitudes are placed into a group and told to discuss racial issues, those who started off with high prejudice will end up with even higher prejudice after the discussion.
Conflict resolution has been studied.
It is the most effective way to resolve a conflict between two groups.
Campers who had been feuding for weeks were able to overcome their differences when they cooperated to solve problems, such as a water leak, in the Robbers Cave experiment.
GRIT is an effective technique.
The approach encourages groups to announce intent to reduce tensions and show small conciliatory behaviors if these reduced tensions and behaviors are reciprocated.
Groupthink occurs when members of a group are so driven to reach unanimous decisions that they no longer evaluate the consequences of their decisions.
Groupthink can be observed when there is a high level of pressure for a decision to be made and when there is a lack of impartial leadership inside or outside the group.
Groupthink can lead to feelings of invulnerability and omnipotence.
They don't believe they can make a mistake and often do.
A mindguard in the group may be responsible for ostracizing members of the group who do not agree with the rest of the group.
The groupthink hypothesis was used to understand how political leaders can make decisions that seem bad to people outside of the group.
Attribution is the way in which people assign responsibility.
Dispositional and situational are the two categories that attribution falls into.
Dispositional attribution assumes that the cause of a behavior is internal.
The cause is assigned to the environment or external conditions.
When students fail a test, they can either attribute their failure to their own poor work habits or to some external factor such as bad instruction.
When the outcomes are positive and the results are negative, a self-serving bias sees the cause of actions as internal.
When a class fails a test, the teacher blames the students for their lack of motivation and initiative.
When the class does well, the teacher attributes the students' success to their superior teaching and motivational ability.
When your class gets back a paper, think about how many times you've heard fellow students say "I got an A" but "He gave me a C." People are more likely to underestimate the role of dispositional attributes when judging the behavior of others.
If you are waiting for your friend to meet you at the movies and she is so late that the movie has already started, you would be more likely to blame her than on a traffic jam or car accident.
Your judgement is indicative of a fundamental error.
In the case of the self-fulfilling prophecy, some attributions affect the outcome of the behavior.
Person A expects Person B to fail or achieve.
The Rosenthal Effect is found in education.
When teachers are told that certain children are expected to do better in the following year, they tend to do better than others.
Interpersonal attraction, the tendency to positively evaluate a person and then gravitate toward that person, has been studied by psychologists.
Interpersonal attraction is based on characteristics of the person to whom we are attracted, but it can also be influenced by environmental and social factors.
Positive evaluation, shared opinions, good physical appearance, familiarity, and proximity of the individuals to each other are some of the factors that lead to attraction.
Positive evaluation refers to the fact that we all like to be evaluated in a positive way, and so we prefer the company of people who think highly of us.
Social reinforcement is thought of as a form of shared opinions.
If we are praised and rewarded for our opinions, we prefer the company.
It is important to note that similarity across other factors, such as age and race, is a good predictor of attraction.
There is variability in proximity.
People are more likely to be attracted to people in close proximity to them.
Studies show that apartment building residents are more likely to have friends who live on their floor than they are to have friends who live on other floors.
The mere exposure effect states that people prefer people and experiences that are familiar.
There is an answer on this page.
Modification of behavior to agree with a group is called conformity.
The nature of conformity was studied by Solomon Asch.
Participants thought that they were being evaluated on their judgement.
A group of people were shown different lengths of lines.
Each member of the group was required to report which comparison lines matched a standard line.
Each person in the group was given a chance to respond.
The participants did not know that the other members of the group were part of the experiment.
The correct answers were obvious in the experiment.
The confederates would respond in a way that was incorrect.
Even though the answer they gave was obviously incorrect, the naive participants agreed with the other members of the group.
The participants knew the answers they gave were wrong, but they said them anyway.
Group size, the cohesiveness of the group opinion, gender, social status, culture, and the appearance of unanimity are some of the factors that affect conformity.
Three or more members of a group is enough for conformity effects to occur.
The participants want to conform if they see themselves as part of a group.
Women are more likely to conform than men.
People who think of themselves as being of medium or low social status are more likely to conform than people who think of themselves as high social status.
People in collective societies tend to conform more than those in individualism.
Unnimity is important.
If only one person in the group did not conform, a participant is less likely to do so.
Even at the expense of your own interests, compliance is the tendency to give in to others.
Explanation of why a person should comply is one method of eliciting compliance.
Reciprocity involves creating the appearance that you are giving someone something in order to get them to comply with your wishes.
The foot-in-the-door phenomenon involves making requests in small steps to gain compliance in order to work up large requests.
The door-in-the-face phenomenon is when a large request is made first, making subsequent smaller requests more appealing.
Our regard for the person making the request affects the likelihood of compliance.
The more we like the person making the request, the more likely we are to comply with it.
There are two reasons why people won't comply.
One reason is that people have been exposed to a weak version of an argument and are inoculated to more attempts to get them to comply.
The theory is called the inoculation hypothesis.
People resist because they feel that they are being forced against their will, which is known as psychological reactance.