During the cold war, there was an air raid drill in schools.
The Soviet Union's first nuclear weapon was set off in 1949.
In February 1951, the children are practicing ducking and covering.
After the Second World War ended, there was a tense cold war between communism and capitalism.
The United States and the Soviet Union waged a war of words for forty years to gain influence over the world.
During the spring and summer of 1945, the United States and the Soviet Union had an uneasy relationship.
With the elimination of German Nazism, the two nations became fierce rivals who could not bridge their ideological differences over basic issues such as human rights, individual liberties, democratic elections, and reli gious freedom.
There was a race to gain influence over nonaligned nations in Asia, Africa, the Middle East, and Central and South America.
The Soviet Union and the United States were sucked into a contest for global influence and control after Japan and Germany were defeated.
The postwar era brought anti- colonial liberation movements that would strip Great Britain, France, the Netherlands, and the United States of their global empires.
Cold war dynamics were complicated by the emergence of the People's Republic of China in 1949.
Domestic and foreign relations were shaped by international tensions in the postwar world.
The advent of atomic weapons made the idea of warfare unthinkably horrible and made national leaders more cautious so as not to start a third world war.
Truman was not well known outside of Washington.
Everyone knew that he wasn't Franklin Delano Roosevelt.
Truman didn't have a wealthy family, didn't travel the world, and didn't attend Harvard or Columbia like Roosevelt.
He didn't attend any college.
Truman was born in western Missouri in 1884.
During the First World War, he was the captain of a battery.
He was in debt for twenty years after his clothing business failed in the recession of 1922.
Truman became a Democrat.
He was sent to the U.S. Senate by Missouri in 1934.
Truman was awestruck on his first day as president.
He told reporters to pray for him.
Truman was an unreflective man who rarely bled by doubts or moral ambiguities.
His press conferences had a lot of con frontations.
The conventional view says that the Soviets set out to dominate after 1945.
The United States had to defend capitalist values.
Historians argue that the United States did not antagonize the Soviet Union.
Truman pursued a foreign policy that focused on stopping the spread of communism, a policy that only worsened tensions.
The United States interfered in the elections in France and Italy to ensure that the Commu nist candidates were defeated.
American agents gave money to anti- Communist candidates, provided campaign advisers, and threatened to cut off aid to the governments if they were elected.
The start of the cold war seems to have been the result of the ideological competition between democratic capitalism and communism and their opposing views of what the postwar world should be.
America's commitment to free- enterprise capitalism, political self- determination, and religious freedom conflicted with the Soviet Union's preference for controlling its neighbors, ideological conformity, and prohibiting religious practices.
Soviet behavior was driven by security.
Germany invaded Russia twice in the first half of the twentieth century, killing 23 million people.
The United States had been dominating Central and South America for decades, just as the Soviets were determined to do.
The cold war dominated global politics because the people of Eastern Europe were caught in the middle.
We are still in the shadows.
After 1945, the military alliance against Nazism broke down as the Soviet Union violated the prom ises it had made.
The Cold War and the Fair Deal freed the nations of Eastern Europe from Nazi control.
The iron curtain should be lifted so that the nations can develop democratic governments.
The events of the second half of 1945 dashed those expectations.
In the spring of 1945 the Soviet Union imprisoned half of the European continent and installed puppet governments in Central and Eastern Europe.
12 million Germans, as well as Poles and Hungarians, were relocated after the Soviets eliminated all political parties except the Commu nists, created secret police forces, took control of intellectual and cultural life, and organized a process of ethnic cleansing.
Everyone who opposed the Soviet- installed regimes was silenced or executed.
Stalin's promise to allow open elections in the nations controlled by the Soviets had turned out to be a lie.
The Secretary of State tried to get America's monopoly on the atomic bomb to be used against the Soviets.
The Soviets didn't pay much attention because their spies kept them informed of what U.S. scientists were doing and they were developing their own atomic bombs.
Truman met with the soviet foreign minister a few days before the opening of the UN conference.
Stalin was told by Truman that the United States expected him to live up to his agreements.
Molotov angrily replied, "I have never been talked to like that in my life."
Relations with the Soviet Union were not warm by the beginning of 1947.
George Frost Kennan, the best-informed expert on the Soviet Union, was asked to give an analysis of Soviet communism by the State Department.
He predicted that the Soviets wouldn't accept a "permanent happy coexistence" of the socialist and capitalist worlds.
Kennan explained that the Soviet Union was founded on a rigid ideol ogy, which saw a global conflict between Communism and capitalism.
He said that the Soviets were committed to constant tension and conflict.
Frank lin Roosevelt thought that his personal diplomacy with Stalin would ensure that the Soviets behaved.
Ken nan said that the Soviet goal was to build military strength while subverting the stability of capi talist democracies.
Tactical efforts to undermine the appeal of Soviet communism are the best way to do that.
The greatest history and behavior of the Soviet asset in foiling Soviet expansion was that of a specialist in italist democracies.
The rationale for containment at the heart of the Truman Doctrine was developed by George Kennan.
Communism was inherently unstable and would eventually cause the break up or gradual mellowing of Soviet power, which was predicted by the Cold War and the Fair Deal.
The new secretary of state was so impressed by Kennan's analysis that he put him in charge of the State Department's Policy Planning office.
The forecast of what would happen to the Soviet Union was so accurate that no other diplomat could have predicted it.
Truman insisted that the Soviets only understood military power.
In 1946, civil war broke out in Greece between the monarchy backed by the British and the Communist led insurgency supported by the Soviets.
On February 21, 1947, the British informed the U.S. government that they could no longer provide economic and military aid to Greece.
Truman met with congressional leaders.
One of them, a Republican senator from Michigan, warned that he would need to scare the American people if he wanted to get public support for a new aid program.
On March 12, 1947, President Truman gave a national radio speech in which he asked Congress to provide $400 million for economic and military assistance to Greece and Turkey.
The president exaggerated the danger of a Commu nist takeover in Greece.
Truman predicted that the fall of Greece would cause dominos to fall across the eastern Mediterranean and Western Europe.
Truman declared war on Communism everywhere in this single sentence.
The assumptions of the "domino theory" made an aggressive containment strategy necessary according to his view.
Many people supported Truman's speech.
Truman's speech was feared to be unnecessarily provocative by the secretary of state and others.
Marshall thought that the president was overstating the Soviet threat.
The scope and vagueness of the Truman Doctrine was raised by others.
A prominent political adviser charged that Truman's speech was a declaration of.
Efforts to contain communism needed to be more focused on political and economic issues.
The United States was not able to intervene in every hot spot.
Truman's policy of global anti- communism was characterized by Walter Lippmann, the nation's leading political journalist, as a "strategic monstrosity" that wouldentangle the United States in endless international disputes and force it to partner with right-wing dictatorships.
Truman and his advisers rejected the concerns.
The president's request for aid to Greece and Turkey was approved by Congress in 1947.
Most postwar European governments were broke and desperate in the spring of 1947.
Socialist and Communist parties were forming in many European nations by 1947.
The crises of these struggling democracies required bold action.
The United States stepped in.
In May 1947, Secretary of State Marshall called for a massive U.S. program to provide financial and technical assistance to rescue Europe, including the Soviet Union.
The Marshall Plan was more than economics.
It was part of Truman's effort to reestablish a strong Western Europe anchored in American values.
The Marshall Plan was a "costly boondoggle" that was missed by Republican critics.
On February 25, 1948, a Communist led coup in Czechoslo vakia ensured the passage of the marshal plan.
The plan was to distribute massive European nations.
The Soviet Union's refusal to participate in postwar Europe and the amount of economic aid it received is depicted in a 1949 cartoon as a modern tractor driven by a prosperous farmer.
To refuse is yoked to an old fashioned "Soviet" as wel.
It was the most successful peacetime diplomatic initiative.
The Marshall Plan increased tensions with the Soviet Union.
The problem of postwar Germany was left unresolved by the breakdown of the wartime alliance between the United States and the Soviet Union.
The United States, France, Great Britain, and the Soviet Union ruled the four sectors of Berlin in 1945.
The U.S. Army had to provide food and supplies to millions of civilians because of the German economy.
Slowly, the Allied tion zones became functioning governments.
In 1948, the British, French, and Americans united their three administrative zones into one and created a common currency for West Germany and West Berlin, a city of 2.5 million people, which was more than 100 miles inside the Soviet occupation zone of East Germany.
The West Germans drafted a federal constitution.
Stalin and the status of divided Berlin had become a powder keg because of the political unification and economic recovery of West Germany.
The new West German currency was prevented from being used in Berlin by Stalin.
On June 23, he stopped all road and rail traffic into West Berlin in order to force the United States and its allies to leave the city.
Stalin's blockade was seen as a tipping point in the cold war by Americans.
General Clay predicted that western Germany would be next.
The dilemma the United States faced was whether to use force to break the Soviet blockade or to retreat from West Berlin.
A girl kisses her grandmother through the barbed wire fence that divided the Dutch- German frontier in 1947.
A cargo plane flies into West Berlin to deliver food and supplies to people in need.
The United States began organizing a massive airlift to provide food and supplies to West Berliners after announcing an embargo against all goods exported from eastern Germany.
In October 1948, the U.S. and British air forces had flown 7,000 tons of food, fuel, medicine, coal, and equipment to Berlin.
Thousands of former military pilots were called back into service to support a possible war.
Emergency funds were used to increase military spending.
The world was watching as the two powers were on the verge of conflict.
On May 12, 1949, the Soviets lifted their blockade because they were desperate for food in western Germany.
The Berlin airlift was the first major victory for the West in the cold war, and the unprecedented efforts of the United States and Great Britain to supply West Berliners transformed most of them into devoted allies.
The Federal Republic of Germany was founded in 1949.
The German Democratic Republic came into being in October.
The United States and its allies needed to act together to stop further Communist expansion into Western Europe because of the Soviet blockade of Berlin.
On April 4, 1949, representatives of twelve nations signed the North Atlantic Treaty.
Greece, Turkey, West Germany, and Spain joined the alliance.
The creation of NATO was a high point in the effort to contain Soviet expansion.
The United States committed itself to go to war on behalf of its allies when it joined NATO.
Isolationism was over.
The National Security Council, a group of top specialists in international, was established as a result of the creation of the Department of Defense.
The CIA was established to coordinate global intelligence gathering.
The NSC gave the CIA permission to undermine governments that threatened American interests.
The United States was helping to form a new nation at the same time as it was forming new alliances.
Since 1919, Palestine has been a British protectorate.
For hundreds of years, Jews throughout the world dreamed of returning to their ancestral homeland of Israel and its ancient capital Zion.
Jews who wanted a separate Jewish nation migrated there.
The only hope for a secure future was created by Hitler's effort to wipe out Jews.
The partition of Palestine was voted on by the United Nations in 1947.
The partition was agreed to by the Jews and Arabs.
Jerusalem was as holy to Muslims and Christians as it was to Jews.
The creation of a Jewish nation in Palestine was viewed as a war by Arabs.
The Jewish militia won control of most of Palestine.
David Ben- Gurion proclaimed Israel's independence on May 14, 1948, when British oversight of Palestine expired.
Within minutes, President Truman recognized the new Israeli nation.
Most of the one million Jews were European immigrants.
Israel was invaded by Syria, Iraq, Jordan, and Egypt.
When Israel joined the United Nations, peace was restored by gradual work by the United Nations.
The whole Palestine coast was kept by Israel.
The Palestinians lost everything.
Most became stateless refugees who fled into other countries.
The U.S. foreign policy has tried to maintain friend ships with both sides but 888-349-8884 888-349-8884 888-349-8884 888-349-8884 888-349-8884 888-349-8884 888-349-8884 888-349-8884 888-349-8884 888-349-8884 888-349-8884 888-349-8884 888-349-8884 888-349-8884 888-349-8884 888-349-8884 888-349-8884 888-349-8884 888-349-8884 888-349-8884 888-349-8884 888-349-8884 888-349-8884 888-349-8884 888-349-8884 888-349-8884 888-349-8884 888-349-8884 888-349-8884 888-349-8884 888-349-8884 888-349-8884 888-349-8884 888-349-8884 888-349-8884 888-349-8884 888-349-8884 888-349-8884 888-349-8884 888-349-8884 888-349-8884
Republicans and Democrats in Congress cooperated with Truman on domestic issues.
There was a lot of opposition to issues related to the cold war.
As the Second World War drew to a close, Republicans in Congress hoped that they could end the New Deal.
In September 1945, Truman called Congress into a special emergency session in which he presented a twenty- one point program to guide the nation's "reconversion" from wartime back to peacetime.
Ensuring that the peacetime economy absorbed the millions of men and women who had served in the armed forces was his greatest challenge.
After the war in Asia ended, the Springfield Armory fired every worker.
The military- dependent companies have announced layoffs.
12 million men and women in uniform left the military and returned to the economy in a recession.
Concerns about another depression were caused by fears of massive unemployment in defense- related industries.
Truman called for unemployment insurance to cover more workers, a higher minimum wage, construction of massive public- housing projects, regional development projects to put veterans to work, and much more.
After a long war, America turned its attention to the pursuit of abundance.
The scope of Truman's proposals left a powerful Republican congressman, Joseph W. Martin, with less speech.
After the First World War, Truman's primary goal was to prevent long-term unemployment while avoiding the "bitter mistakes" that caused price inflation and a recession.
He wanted to keep the wartime controls on wages, prices, and rents, as well as the rationing of food items.
He wanted military veterans to find civilian jobs.
Congress wouldn't go that far.
Truman was unable to win over skeptical legislators.
Truman's attempts to revive or expand New Deal programs were opposed by Republicans and conservatives in Congress.
Critics said the Great Depression was over.
Different times demanded dif ferent programs.
There were short- term economic problems caused by the end of the war.
100,000 contracts for military supplies and equipment were canceled by the federal government.
Women who had been recruited to work in defense industries were pushed out as men looked for jobs.
At a shipyard in California, the foreman told the women workers to welcome the troop ships as they arrived.
The women were laid off to make room for men.
The economic impact of demo bilization was mitigated by several shock absorbers.
The Servicemen's Readjustment Act of 1944, known as the GI Bill of Rights, provided $13 billion for veterans to use for education, medical treatment, unemployment insurance, and loans.
Veterans came back to colleges, jobs, wives and husbands and babies.
Marriage rates went up.
Population growth dropped off sharply in the 1930s.
The baby boom generation was made up of Americans born during the postwar period and would shape the nation's social and cultural life throughout the second half of the twentieth century and after.
The postwar spike in prices for con sumer goods was the most acute eco nomic problem faced by Harry Truman.
Wages and prices were frozen and labor unions were banned during the war.
Truman's decision in June 1946 to remove wartime controls on wages and consumer prices caused consumer prices to spike, which led labor unions to demand pay increases.
More than 4,000 strikes at automobile plants, steel mills, coal mines, and railroads erupted in 1945-1946 when management refused to provide higher wages.
It was the first time in history that so many employees walked off the job in one year.
Truman was frustrated by the stubbornness of both management and labor leaders.
He took control of the coal mines after the mine owners agreed to union demands.
The Cold War and the Fair Deal were shut down.
Truman said that this is no longer a dispute between labor and management.
Many union members who had voted Democratic were bitter because of his threat.
Government controls on meat were restored after the backlash over postwar inflation.
This led to more complaints.
Ranchers refused to sell their animals for slaughter because they were so upset.
Consumers complained that the food supply was worse than it had been during the war.
Truman was tagged by a union leader.
The strikes on the White House caused a lot of the public to be upset by the unions, price increases, food shortages, and scarcity of automobiles and affordable housing.
Labor unions emerged from the war with more power than ever, and blue- collar workers were essential to military victory.
The rights of workers to form and join unions were ensured by the National Labor Relations Act of 1935.
More than a third of the workforce were unionized by 1945.
Union members tended to vote Democratic, but not in the 1946 elections, because they viewed Truman as their enemy.
The Republicans gained control of both houses of Congress for the first time since 1928.
Many of the provisions of the NLRA have been gutted by the law, which allowed employers to be against efforts to form unions and banned unions from coercing workers to join or refuse to negotiate grievances.
The pro vision of the new bill allowed state legislatures to pass right- to-work laws, which ended the practice of forcing all workers to join a union once a majority voted to unionize.
Democrats were happy.
Many unionists who voted Republican in the past are now Democrats.
The president's veto was overturned by Congress and the law became law.
The formation of unions was opposed by conservatives in the South.
They were worried that unions would disrupt the profitability of the southern textile industry and put pressure on the tradition of racial segregation.
A prominent Texas business executive, lobbyist, and white supremacist hated unions because they encouraged workers to organize across racial lines.
The number of strikes dropped as a result of the act, and representatives of management and labor learned to work together.
Right- to- work laws were passed by fifteen state legislatures by the year 1954.
The states recruited industries to relocate because of their low wages.
The Republicans did not realize that most union members would vote Democratic in 1948.
President Truman had to confront the bigotry faced by returning African American soldiers.
A white neighbor yelled "Don't you forget" when a black veteran came home in a uniform.
A black veteran was beaten so badly that he was blinded when he was yanked off a bus in South Carolina.
The Democratic National Convention was picketed by demonstrators on July 12, 1948, calling for racial integration of the armed forces.
The Second World War had changed America's racial landscape.
Many returning black veterans were unwilling to put up with racial abuse at home because they had fought to overthrow the Nazi regime.
The cold war gave political leaders incentive to improve race relations.
The Nazis' brutalization of Jewish people was compared to racism by the Soviets.
Racist examples were highlighted by the Communists in their fight against capitalism.
Black veterans who spoke out risked their lives.
Two African American couples were killed in Georgia in 1946, by a white mob.
One of the murderers said that one of the victims was a "good nigger" until he joined the army.
In the fall of 1946, a delegation of civil rights activists urged President Truman to condemn the lynching of African Americans.
The Commission on Civil Rights was appointed by Truman.
Democrats in the South were angry.
Thur mond would leave the party to form a new one.
Truman banned racial discrimination in the federal government on July 26, 1948.
An executive order ended racial segregation in the armed forces four days later.
White southerners disagreed.
Truman is a dead bird as far as being reelected, boasted a Democratic congressman.
Professional basebal was being disman tled because of racial segregation.
Jack Roosevelt "Jackie" Robinson was the first African American to play in a major league baseball game.
He was the grandson of slaves and was born in 1919.
His father left six months later.
Robinson became an all- around athlete after his mother moved the family to California.
Robinson was the first athlete in school history to letter in four sports.
He began playing baseball in the Negro Leagues after serving in the army.
Major league scouts thought he could play in the big leagues.
Branch Rickey, president and general manager of the Brooklyn Dodgers, interviewed Robinson for three hours on August 28, 1945.
Robinson was asked if he could face racial abuse without losing his temper.
African American and Latino spectators were drawn to the games due to Robinson's courage and athletic skills.
He greeted his fans at a high school in Santo Domingo.