Nuclear fusion can be used to produce electricity.
fusion provides ten times more energy per gram of fuel than does fission, and because the products of the reaction are less problematic than those of fission, fusion holds promise as a future energy source.
The generation of electricity by fusion remains elusive despite concerted efforts.
The high temperature required for fusion is one of the main problems.
Scientists use powerful magnetic fields or laser beams to heat and compress the nucleus to the point where fusion can be initiated and sustained for brief periods of time.
The amount of energy generated by fusion reactions has been less than required.
After years of spending billions of dollars on fusion research, the U.S. Congress has reduced funding.
It is not certain whether fusion will ever be a viable energy source.
A tokamak Nuclear Transmutation uses powerful magnetic fields to confine nuclear fuel at the enormous 21.10 Transuranium Elements temperatures.
The atoms are ionized.
The attempts to turn different metals into gold were chemical and never succeeded.
In a chemical reaction, a less valuable metal such as lead always remains lead, even when it forms a compound with another element.
We have already seen how this happens.
There are other nuclear reactions that can be done.
The daughter of Marie Curie and her husband won the chemistry prize for their work.
In the 1930s, scientists began building devices that accelerated particles to high speeds, opening the door to even more possibilities.
A charged particle is accelerated in an evacuated tube.
There is a potential difference between the ends of the tube.
As a positively charged particle leaves a particular tube, that tube becomes positively charged, repelling the particle to the next tube.
The particle can be accelerated to speeds up to 90% of the speed of light.
Particles of this speed collide with a target and produce a shower of particles that can be studied.
In a cyclotron, an alternating voltage is applied between the two semicircular halves of the cyclotron to accelerate a charged particle.
There is a charged particle in the middle of the two semicircles.
The particle moves in a spiral path.
As the charged particle spirals out from the center, it gains speed and eventually exits the cyclotron aimed at the target.
There are two cyclotrons in a figure-8 configuration in the Path of Accelerator Laboratory complex.
There are two semicircular D-shaped structures in a cyclotron.
A charged particle, starting from a point between the two, is accelerated back and forth between them, while additional magnets cause the particle to move in a spiral path.
Nuclear transmutations can be achieved with cyclotrons.
Scientists have made nuclides that are not normally found in nature.