31 -- Part 7: Global Recovery and Division Between Superpowers 1945 to the Present
The pretensions of communism.
Havel's goals were different from those of DubcVek, the lively bar scene, and officially forbidden rock 'n' roll.
Havel watched 2 as the Soviets rolled into Czechoslovakia in 1968.
The free-spirited artist threw himself into the intellectual opposition to communism and became Vaclav Havel, playwright, dissident leader, and the first its leading figure for the next twenty years.
Havel lifted barrels in a Niedenthal/Black Star brewery and wrote bitter satires that could not be staged.
Havel spent five years in prison and was harassed by the police.
Havel focused on truth, decency, and moral regeneration.
In 1975, Havel wrote an open letter to the Communist boss of Czechoslovakia, saying that the people were driven by fear.
On October 3, 1990, East and West Germany merged into a single nation.
The end of the Cold War was accelerated by Germany's reunification.
The anticommunist revolution swept the Soviet Union after the failed attempt to depose Gorbachev.
The republics that formed the Soviet Union were led by Russia and Boris Yeltsin.
The Commonwealth of Independent States was formed by eleven of the fifteen republics, but the integrated economy of the Soviet Union dissolved into separate national economies.
Europe should end confrontation and division.
The Cold War encouraged the United States and the Soviet Union to relax their nuclear defensive posture and scrap their borders as a result of Peace in Europe.
The Soviet and American nuclear weapons were not ready to be used in Europe for the first time in four decades.
Is the Soviet Union going to experience a popular anticommunist revolution?
In the wake of a series of electoral defeats of the Com munist Party, Gorbachev broke with the party hardliners and asked Soviet citizens to approve a new constitution that abolished the Communist Party's monopoly on political power.
Gorbachev was elected president of the Soviet Union.
Boris Yeltsin was strengthened by Gorbachev's erosion of power and refusal to risk a popular election.
Yeltsin became leader of the Russian parliament in May 1990 and announced that Russia would leave the Soviet Union.
The appeal to patriotism of ordinary Russians widened the base of the anticommunist movement.
Gorbachev survived an attempted coup by Communist Party hardliners in August 1991.
The Communist Party was banned and the Soviets tried to reform society.
Russia was declared independent by Yeltsin and his liberal allies.
The Cold War era was a time of remarkable economic growth and social transformation within the United States.
As America tried to contain communism around the globe, it underwent an internal transformation that led to new rights for African Americans and women.
The end of the Cold War and the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991 left Americans with questions about the new position of the United States as the world's only superpower.
The United States experienced a great economic boom after the Second World War ended.
Americans' well-being increased dramatically, and unemployment practically vanished.
The U.S. economy advanced for a long time.
Prosperity explains why postwar domestic politics were mostly modest ad justments until the 1960s.
Truman showed that Americans had no interest in undoing Roosevelt's social and economic reforms.
The voters of the United States turned to General Dwight D. in 1952.
Eisenhower was a moderate.
John F. Kennedy was killed by an assassin's bullet in 1963.
After a long struggle African Americans threw off a deeply entrenched system of segregation and discrimination.
On several fronts, the civil rights movement advanced.
The NAACP challenged school segregation in the courts.
Blacks used Gandhian methods of peaceful resistance to fight inequality.
Lyndon Johnson won the 1964 presidential election with the support of African American voters.
The Voting Rights Act of 1965, which guaranteed all blacks the right to vote, was enacted in 1964.
Medical care for the poor and aged, free preschools for poor children, and community action programs were created by Johnson's administration with the help of Congress.
After the Second World War, western Europe embraced the kind of social reform promoted by the United States.
Youth in North America and western Europe were impacted by economic prosperity and a more democratic class structure.
The baby boomers, who were born after World War II, developed a counterculture that rebelled against authority figures and the status quo.