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Chapter 11: Statistics

- Descriptive statistics describe a set of data.
- If you were interested in learning how many students have dogs, cats, zebras, and so on, you could use a Frequency Distribution to tell you how many students have them.
- It is helpful to graph your findings.
- Frequency distributions can be turned into bar graphs known as histograms.
- Pets are graphed along the x - axis, while the y - axis always represents Frequency.

- Measures of central tendency are a group of statistical measures.
- The center of a distribution is marked by measures of central tendency.
- The mean, median, and mode are measures of central tendency.
- The mean is the average of the scores in the distribution.
- To calculate the mean, you add up all the scores in the distribution and divide by the number of scores.
- The distribution has a median score.
- If there is an odd number of scores, you can find the middle one by writing the scores down in descending order.
- The average of the middle two scores is the median of the distribution.
- The mode is the score that shows up the most.
- A distribution may have more than one mode.
- A distribution is bimodal if two scores show up the same amount of times.

- The mean is the most widely used measure of central tendency, but it can be distorted by extreme scores or outliers.
- 19 of your friends drive cars worth $12,000 but your other friend has a $120,000 car.
- The value of your car is $17,400.
- Since that value is in excess of everyone's car, it is not the best measure of central tendency.
- The median is a better measure of central tendency when a distribution includes outliers.

- The distribution is skewed if it is symmetrical.
- Outliers skew distributions.
- The distribution is said to be positively skewed when it includes a group of scores that are very high.
- The distribution is negatively skewed when the skew is caused by a particularly low score.
- A distribution with more low scores than high scores is called a skew.
- A negatively skewed distribution has more high scores than low scores.
- The mean is higher than the median because the outliers have a more dramatic effect on the mean than on the median.

- Descriptive statistical measures include measures of variability.
- You may be familiar with the range, variance, and standard deviation.
- The diversity of the distribution is depicted by measures of variability.
- The range is the distance between the highest and lowest scores.
- The square root of the standard deviation is related to the variance.
- The average distance of any score in the distribution from the mean is related to both measures.

- Being able to compare scores is important.
- You can convert scores from different distributions into measures called Z scores.
- The distance from the mean to the Z scores is measured in units of standard deviation.
- Scores below the mean have negative Z scores, while scores above the mean have positive Z scores.
- If Clarence scored a 72 on a test with a mean of 80 and a standard deviation of 8, his Z score would be -1.
- Maria's Z score would be +0.5 if she scored an 84 on that test.

- You will often see references to the normal curve in psychology.
- The area under the curve lying between the two scores has been set.
- Almost 99 percent of scores fall within three standard deviations of the mean in a normal distribution, as well as 95 percent of scores falling within two standard deviations of the mean.
- Knowing that the normal curve is symmetrical and knowing the three numbers will allow you to calculate the percentage of scores falling between any given scores.

- The percentiles indicate the distance of a score from 0 to the mean.
- A person who scores in the 90th percentile on a test is more likely to score better than other people.
- Only 38 percent of the people who took the test scored better than someone who scored at the 38th percentile.
- The normal curve has a relationship between percentiles and Z scores.
- Someone who scores at the 50th percentile has a Z score of 0, and someone who scores at the 98th percentile has an approximate Z score of +2.

- A correlation is a measure of the relationship between two variables.
- Positive or negative correlations can be found.
- The presence of one thing predicts the presence of the other.
- A negative correlation means that the presence of one thing predicts the absence of the other.
- There is no correlation when there is no relationship between two things.
- It is possible that a correlation exists between studying and earning good grades.
- It is possible that a negative correlation could occur between cutting classes and earning good grades.
- It is likely that there is no correlation between the number of stuffed animals you own and your grades.

- Correlations can be strong or weak.
- The correlation coefficients can be used to determine the strength of a correlation.
- Correlation coefficients range from a negative correlation to a positive correlation.
- Both -1, and -1, show strong correlations.
- No correlation means that knowing something about one variable doesn't tell you anything about the other.

- A correlation can be graphed using a scatter plot.
- The number of hours a group of people study per week can be plotted on the x - axis while their grade point average can be plotted on the y - axis.
- A scatter plot is a series of points.
- The closer the points fall on a straight line, the stronger the correlation.
- The line of best fit is the line drawn through the scatter plot that is closest to the line.
- Positive correlation can be seen when the line slopes upward from left to right.
- A negative correlation is shown by a downward slope.

- Students believe correlations are related to positive numbers.
- It's as strong a correlation as +.
- 92.

- A correlation, no matter how strong, does not indicate a relationship.

- The plot shows the correlation between hours studied.

- The purpose of inferential statistics is to determine if the findings can be applied to the larger population from which the sample was selected.
- One of the primary goals in selecting a sample is to represent the population from which it was picked.
- One cannot infer anything from a sample that does not represent the larger population.
- It is impossible to guarantee that a sample is representative of the population.
- Sampling error is the extent to which the sample is different from the population.

- Say that you tested the effects of sugar consumption on short-term memory.
- You assigned your subjects to either a control group that was given a sugarfree lollipop or to the experimental group that was given a seemingly identical lollipop.
- The participants were tested on their recall of 15 one-syllable nouns.
- The 0.1 difference in the example is too small to allow us to make a conclusion.
- You would be reluctant to draw any conclusions given the huge difference in the number of words recalled.

- You would be correct to be skeptical.
- Sampling error and chance are likely to be the reasons for the differences between the groups.
- Inferential statistics are used to help psychologists decide when to apply their findings to the larger population.
- There are many different inferential statistical tests.
- They take into account the size of the sample and the magnitude of the difference found.
- The most important thing for you to know is that the tests yield a p value.
- The probability of the difference being due to chance is given by the p value.
- The cutoff for statistically significant results is a p value of.05.
- 5 percent is the chance that the results occurred by chance.
- We can never be certain that the results did not happen due to chance.
- Scientists try to duplicate their results in order to gather more evidence that their initial findings were not due to chance.

- The correlation coefficients can be computed with a p value.
- The bigger the sample, the more likely the relationship will be significant.

- Research design involves ethical considerations.
- The ethical guidelines established by the APA for human and animal research should be understood and applied to specific research designs.
- Any type of academic research must be submitted to the ethics board or IRB at the institution.
- The IRB reviews research proposals for ethical violations.
- Researchers can either go ahead with the research or have to revise their procedures.

- Groups advocating the ethical treatment of animals are more focused on how animals are treated in laboratory experiments.
- The guidelines for using animals in psychological research were developed by the APA.

- They need a clear scientific purpose.

- The research needs to answer an important scientific question.

- The best-suited animals to answer the question must be chosen.

- They need to care for and house animals in a humane way.

- They need to acquire animal subjects legally.
- The animals must be purchased from accredited companies.
- Wild animals need to be trapped in a humane way.

- They need to design procedures that use the least amount of suffering.

- Participation should be voluntary.

- Participants must know that they are involved in research and give their consent.
- If the participants are deceived in any way about the nature of the study, the deception must not be so extreme as to invalidate the informed consent.
- To give informed consent meaning, the research the participants thought they were consenting to must be similar to the actual study.
- The trauma deception may cause researchers to be very careful.

- Privacy must be protected.
- The researcher cannot reveal their identities or actions.
- When the researchers don't collect any data that will allow them to match a person's responses with his or her name, participants have anonymity.
- In some cases, such as interview studies, a researcher can't promise anonymity, but they can guarantee confidentiality, which means they won't identify the source of the data.

- Participants can't be placed at significant mental or physical risk.
- It is permissible for participants to experience temporary stress but they should avoid activities that could cause long-term mental or physical harm.
- The Review Board has to interpret this clause.
- Some boards might not allow a certain level of risk.
- In the 1970s, Stanley Milgram's studies in which participants thought they were causing significant harm or death to other participants highlighted this consideration.

- After the study, participants should be told the purpose of the study and how to contact the researchers.
- It is important to conduct a thorough debriefing when research involves deception.

- Five suggested answers or completions are followed by each of the questions or incomplete statements.
- Pick the one that is the best.

- lab partners assigned to research who is friendlier, girls or boys After talking to their first 10 participants, they found that their ratings for politeness differed a lot.

- Professor Ma wants to study the emotional response to date rape.
- He advertises for participants in the school newspaper, informs them about the nature of the study, gets their consent, conducts an interview, and debriefs them after the experiment is over.

- A mean of 100 and a standard deviation of 15 were the values of the IQ test scored by Lily.

- Everyone else fails the test, but Emma scores a perfect 100.

- Jose thinks that a new drug he has invented will improve mice's memories.
- He gives a placebo to the experimental group.
- The mice are learning to run through a maze.

- The three classes were assigned to an experimental condition.

- A computer creates a random list of high school students.

- Approaching any students during lunch.

- Vincenzo wants to see if fear makes mice run faster.
- He divided the 60 mice into two groups, the control group and the experimental group.

- According to a nursery school student, boys have fights with the finger paints more than girls do.
- She looked at the finger-painting table for three days at nursery school.

- Survey data shows that students who spend more time preparing for the AP test score better on the test.

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