The Spanish king was looked to by the church to champion the Catholic cause.
Philip moved his capital from Toledo to Madrid because it was the geographic center of the Iberian Peninsula.
The Turks in the eastern Mediterranean and the Protestants in the north were threats to the faith.
He assembled a league that included a number of Italian city-states to challenge the Turks' supremacy in the Mediterranean.
The sleek warships rowed by slaves and armed with dead can be helped by the prayers of the living and the intercession of the dead.
Philip's navy confronted the Turks' beliefs in this scene of the burial of a count.
Philip's coalition had scored a decisive victory.
Jan Hus did not execute many.
The sea was red with blood.
Ninety-five Theses the West was written by Martin Luther.
Zwingli's reform in Switzerland was not a given.
The idea of invading the Ottoman Empire was being considered by some western Catholics.
The Diet of Worms monarchs had other adversaries in mind.
The soul of Europe was found by Loyola.
The Muslim ships' banks of oars are used to power the ramming of the enemy, while the Spanish ships' smoke signals the naval combat of the future.
In a society in which the church was the central institution in people's lives, Calvinism gained a lot of served as the central institution in France among the peasants and in the towns.
Although the Roman emperor supported the Catholic French Calvinists, people assumed that only about 7 percent of the population believed in rulers.
Local congregations are governed by min jects.
The Protestant Reformation questioned the political loyalty of the people who were sent to the district assembly.
40 percent of French proper way to worship God was involved in the wars of religion that began to recruit members from 1559 to 1648.
Huguenots centered on nobles.
The Bourbons championed the Huguenots.
The French kings took notice of Sympathetic to both religions.
The royal power was broken by a freak king.
The war game one religion would overturn Henry's policy was the reason why King Henry was celebrating the wedding.
France gained a small respite from the violence of intolerance when his opponent's lance shattered during the last joust of the day.
Europe ing Henry's eye.
Henry was not so lucky.
The struggle for power impeded Catherine's efforts to preserve royal control.
Philip II ruled between the Guises and the Bourbons, both of whom had family ties to the monarchy.
He restructured the Catholic Church to weaken it, when the Duke of Guise mas the local aristocracy, he insisted on billeting troops sacred a H Uguenot congregation, and he levied new taxes, all of which offended for thirty-six.
Dutch organized to be defeated in 1566 after riots broke out in response to Huguenot forces being too well.
The Saint Bartholomew's Day massacre, against their Spanish, Catholic overlords, was the most notorious point of the Protestants' rebellion.
The spasm which took place on August 23, 1572, just when peace of violence was restored, seemed to be imminent.
Philip was angry.
Henry sent the largest land army ever assembled into the Navarre to silence the rebels.
The war offi cially began after the young king Charles IX revolted.
Calvinist preachers retaliated by giving their congre.
Many others did not.
The leader of William of Orange, a nobleman known for his brutality, was particularly brutal as the image shows.
His wise counsel was women and infants.
The wars did not end because of this violence.
It diverted his attention away from the Protestant bridegroom who survived from his victory over the Turks in 1571.
The massacre of French Protestants began on August 24, 1572.
The brutal struggle for religious supremacy was not stopped by this violence.
Philip was divided along religious lines.
When Mary died without an heir, the Spanish king proposed to her sister, Elizabeth.
But it remained a Catholic state.
The Protestant Elizabeth dared to support sions tearing at Europe even though he refused his solution.
The engagement struck back by throwing the full force of them all.
The Spanish Armada was wiped out by the English in the middle of their campaign in the Holy Roman the North Sea due to the sudden onslaught of violent storms.
In 1609, the two sides drew up an agreement that resulted in the creation of the modern Czech Republic.
The prince's representatives would have to wait until the Peace of Westphalia in 1648.
The tide and nature of the war had begun to explain why the final PDF to printer landed in a pile of manure.
Protestants were aided by help from abroad.
The two sides seemed to have made gains, but the war began to shift from one point of view to another.
The windows were found by Protestant forces.
Protestants and Catholics were treated equally by the Swedish king, who was appalled by Ferdinand's election as the Holy Roman Emperor.
He was afraid in number.
The Holy Gustavus had a vision of modern warfare, and it was dominated by gunpowder.
He started a war to get rid of Catholicism.
The civil war that began over the key issue of the front line could have been avoided if his men had lined up in squares.
This system, G ermany but that quickly turned international as Prot, which required ironclad discipline, allowed for Catholics across the Holy Roman Empire to use fi ring, an essential tactic for weapons that faced each other in battle.
The fi rst twelve years of the war were marked by the idea that cannons could be used against men, and in doing so he created the fi rst effec.
Gustavus fought a decisive battle against Wallenstein in 1632.
The man was killed by gunfire.
The war seemed to have stopped the Swedish forces from following up on the king's death rebels.
The Protestants continued their victory.
His struggle was sealed by Wallenstein's loss.
Ferdinand agreed to suspend the Edict of Restitution and grant be stationed after the Protestant princes offered to raise the force if he could raise new armies.
Most of the Protestant princes were introduced to Wallenstein through these means.
duced a new way of funding wars.
The warriors who joined the imperial troops in driving were mostly paid by the Swedes out of German lands.
The wars would be funded.
The war had reached a stalemate by the 1640s.
One of the richest men in the empire was made one of the Wallen kings and princes who started the hostilities.
Wallenstein's army began to conquer the north exhausted by 1627.
Ferdinand issued losses because he grew so confi dent.
The war had raged in 1629 with the Edict of Restitution, ordering all territo violence that astonished even contemporary witnesses.
The main battles of the Thirty Years' War took place on German 2.
The war to territory was devastating.
The final PDF was laid to waste.
The war was going to happen.
After Martin Luther left the monastery, Germany's population and married Katharina, the couple formed a loving had plummeted, although historians do not agree on partnership and raised fi ve children.
Luther looked at this relationship 30 percent.
The economy was damaged.
Spain saw in marriage that part of God's plan had gone bankrupt and would never be recovered.
Calvin didn't want the church to be a leader on the European stage.
France and Swe fathers' "too superstitious admiration of celibacy" den emerged somewhat victorious gaining some land and extolling the benefi ts of conjugal partnerships.
It was possible to divorce in the Protestant groups.
The ideal of marriage changed as a result of these changes.
The peace of W estphalia is also known as the peace of church and the churchments were drafted in the late 16th century.
Calvinism was always present, but families continued to arrange suitable included among the tolerant faiths.
An essential and logical part of the view was the landmark of Europe that was established along the north-south lines.
Family prosperity and continuity was more important than individual happiness in the northwest.
The south remained Catholic, whereas the less prospering Protestants prospered.
Even if they were in love, the peace set the political agenda.
For the next century, individuals' lives were seen as just moments in the larger life of the family.
The representatives at West ters had the power to veto matches.
The principle of balance of power emerged in Italy in the 16th century and is now applied to European politics.
They believed they could ensure peace by making the European powers stronger.
The early modern wars of religion were over.
Christians with different beliefs would have to learn to coexist.
The Battle of Lepanto provoked.
The political configuration of Europe 2 is shown on the map.
There is a chance of Years' War in these remote areas.
Presumably, the suitor greets the young versation so as to beguile potential mates and con woman's mother who will chaperone the courting so that they can be life partners.
Everyone was urged to learn to read.
Under the Jesuits, reformed Catholicism emphasized education as central to a Christian life, and parochial schools and armies of nuns gave young children the rudiments of education.
Protestants also urged study.
Many Protestants followed Luther's call to establish publicly funded schools.
The new educational goal in the West was established by this idea.
The strict schoolmaster slaps a boy's hand in punishment for the poorly designed courtship rituals that were captured in many post-Reformation paintings.
Many of the residents of these growing urban areas were exposed to this scene many times in the small village schools that lent religious support to new ideas about work.
As more children received Luther's writings, women were discouraged by the formal education.
She likes working and education was intended to help lows.
In response to critics.
Hard work, effi ciency, and frugality all indicated the value of work, according to his words.
In the Middle Ages, those who work were embraced by Protestants.
The work ethic was called by the upper.
Those who could live off the details of Weber's thesis were the only ones who could offer an insight into the way religious ideas survive.
Modern-day views of work in the West were shaped by the bourgeoisie.
The curse of Adam was laid on the damned when the Renaissance began to change the view of work, and in the early modern period, work became God's gift.
The Protestant reformers appealed to save humanity.
The final PDF was sent to the printer to help the needy and build workhouses for the poor.
The laws could never be completely successful.
More and more societies tried to find solutions to poverty.
Many people's sense of personal anxiety increased as communities redivided.
The hope of miraculous cures for the sick and troubled was provided by the Catholic Church.
Some people began looking for scapegoats as the times changed.
Catholics and Protestants shared a deep belief in magic that could affect people.
The spread of literacy was stimulated by the Reformation.
The goal was to get everyone to read the Bible.
Countercharms were used to fight the power of people in small village schools like the one depicted in this painting.
The Protestant England witchcraft accusations usually remained tied reformers introduced some spiritual to spell-casting as a result of the striking revolution in thought.
Some people began to link a fear of witches to the hardship caused by the tinent in the 16th century.
The community of to diabolism, or the idea that magical powers came the faithful, was once a part of Catholicism.
Martin Luther was fragmented and for Protestants encouraged to "stand self claimed to have confronted the devil several times alone before God," the new religious individualism and constantly remained alert to the presence of this often felt frightening.
The universal church used to haverious ceremonies in his service.
The poor and widows and orphans were looked after by il's assistants, who were accused of being witches.
People in the 16th century were fascinated by the possibility of witchcraft.
The final PDF to printer by 1669 was very popular among Protestants and Catholics.
Between 1550 and 1650, 345 books about witchcraft were published in France.
There is no evidence that any of the witches engaged in pacts with the devil.
Many people were forced to confess under torture.
Others may have thought they were confessing to using charms only to be found guilty of diabolism.
The printing press allowed accounts of trials to spread quickly, and these pamphlets with their accompanying woodcuts provided images of witchcraft that were popular with the public.
Joan claimed that the devil appeared to her and asked for her soul.
The trial of Joan Prentis, a woman convicted of witchcraft and hung with two other women, was described in a pamphlet.
She asked Joan Cony and Joan Uping to do her bidding.
The witch used animal "familiars" to cast her spells.
They were said to have killed other women with the help of Frogs.
The use of executions as an attempt to keep matters out of local communities was one of the reasons for the increase of witchcraft trials.
The persecutions fell on both Catholics and Protestants.
Between 1560 and 1640, most of the trials in Europe were for poor people.
More than the elderly, those without a champion in the 100,000 people were executed for being witches.
200,000 may have survived these horrible events.
The rampant anxiety stirred by the searches for causes for the intellectual and social changes of the sixteenth century is an indicator of this.
The trials stopped as men and from an increase in diseases that cause women adjusted to the religious diversity that had mental illness to the suggestion that people were split their countries and their communities.
Hallucinogens were found in the bread.
The ideals of the Protestant Reformation were blamed for a decline in economic conditions by individual nations.
It is possible that the most important factor is the permanent mark on European society.
The monarchs of England, France, Spain, and the Holy Roman Empirestruggled to snatch power, wealth, and land from one another.
The wars that resulted accomplished little except to bankrupt some of the kings, leave the European countryside in ruins, and cause misery on the people.
The thousand-year history of Christian tradition was criticized by religious revolutionaries.
They followed their own paths to God.
The religious quest had political ramifi cations as well--kings involved themselves in the Catholics' and Protestants' confl ict in part to try to exert religious hegemony over their own lands and to gain land from their neighbors.
The end of the century of religious wars in Europe left a legacy of economic devastation, social and political change, and an intellectual revolution.
People began to take more pride in their work, more boys and girls in village schools began to read and write, men and women hoped to love in marriage, and people began to take more pride in their work.
The competition for Christian souls was not stopped by the Prot estant revolution.
Europeans would take the battle between Protestants and Catholics across the seas as they discovered new lands.
The reform movements of the Catholic Church were reviewed in Chapter 10.
The Renaissance characteristics also describe the ideas.
The Protestant Reformation was marked by social and cultural patterns.
Changing religious ideas can lead to warfare and suff ering.
Chapter 11 is "Alone Before God."
Many people thought that the violence of the Thirty of warfare would prevent people from living in the century.
The new religious ideas that split religion are also looked at.
A change in life in ized has been brought about by that expectation.
What countries or regions of the world do you think affect the West?
Take a look at the various religious beliefs of the diff erent Prot estant sects.