21 -- Part 4: 1 Periodic Trends and Charge Density
The art of glassmaking has been around for a long time.
There are beautiful stained-glass windows in medieval and modern churches, and ancient glass containers for perfume and oil in many museums.
Glass is used in almost every facet of life.
The mixture can be fused at a relatively low temperature compared to the melting point of pure silica, and it is easy to form into shapes.
The glass can be used for things like drinking glasses and windows because of the effect of the calcium and sodium ion.
The ultimate glass product is a mixture of sodium and calcium silicates.
There are stained-glass windows in the Chapel of Thanksgiving in Dallas, Texas.
The Chemistry of the Main- Group Elements I: Groups 1, 2, 13, and 14 Glass has a distinctive green color.
The process of making glass can be made simpler with the addition of MnO2.
The violet color is caused by the oxidation of green FeSiO3 to yellow Fe21SiO323 and the reduction of Mn2O3.
The yellow and violet are the same color.
CoO can be used to impart color where desired.
Additives such as calcium are used to make an opaque glass.
A glass with exceptional transparency can be made by incorporating lead oxides.
The dimensions of soda-lime glass change with temperature.
The glass can't survive thermal shock.
The lanterns used in the early days of railroads were limited by this limitation.
The hot glass in the lanterns would shatter in the rain.
The problem was solved by adding B2O3 to the glass.
Pyr glass is used in cookware in the home and in chemical laboratories.
The distorted images produced by the thick bottoms of drinking glasses are caused by small bubbles or impurities in most glass.
Light cannot be transmitted over long distances without distortion or loss of signal.
A special glass made of pure silica is required.
A series of chemical reactions can be used to make this glass.
First, coke is used as a reducing agent.
SiCl41g2 is formed when the Silicon is allowed to react with Cl21g2.
The Si4 is burned in a flame.
SiO2 is a fine ash, and chlorocarbon compounds are gaseous products.
The SiO2 can be melted and drawn into the fine fibers of the cable.
The United States produces millions of kilometers of fiber-optic cable each year.
Boron is a solid acidic oxide.
Al2O3 is amphoteric and CO2 is acidic.
Boric acid is a weak acid.
There is a wide range of borates and silicates.
This diagonal relationship is not easily understood and can't be seen in terms of charge density since the bonding in boron compounds and in Silicon compounds is exclusively covalent.
Both metalloids have similar electronegativities and have the same size.
The data in Table 21.9 suggests that tin and lead are similar.
They are soft and melt at low temperatures.
They have the same tendencies to be oxidation to the +2 oxidation state.
Tin and lead can be found in two oxidation states, +2 and +4, which is an example of the inert pair effect.
In the +2 oxidation state, the ns2 is not involved in bond formation, whereas in the +4 oxidation state, they are.
Tin has a tendency to be in the + 4 oxidation state.
The lower oxidation state is favored farther down a group in that trend.
tin and lead both have two common forms, but lead has a single solid form.
The b (white), or metallic, form of tin is stable above 13 degC.
When a sample of b tin is cooled, it must be kept below 13 degrees for a long time before it becomes a tin.
The transformation takes place quickly and with dramatic results once it begins.
The tin expands and falls to a powder because it is less dense than the b variety.
The objects made of tin are destroyed by this transformation.
Some organ pipes are made of tin or tin alloy, which can cause a problem in churches in cold climates.
Tinplate and plat ing iron are used in cans for storing food.
The low-melting alloys are used to join wires.
Organ pipes are made out of Sn and Pb.
The coke is used to make the metal.
Half of the lead produced is used in batteries.
To protect against X-rays, other uses include the manufacture of solder and other alloys.
Tin and lead exhibit the +2 and +4 oxidation states.
Table 21.10 shows the charge densities of the ion.
Many of the compounds containing tin in the +2 oxidation Lead Ions state are covalent; however, a few ionic solids containing the Sn2+ ion are known.
Lead is found in many ionic solids.
Tin forms two primary oxides.
It is possible to use SnO2 as an abrasive jewelry.
Some of the chemistry of lead oxides is not fully understood.
There are several batteries, glass, ceramic glazes, cements, metal-protecting paints and lead oxides used in the manufacture of lead-acid.
Other lead compounds are usually made.
Because lead tends to be in the +2 oxidation state, lead(IV) compounds tend to undergo reduction to compounds of lead(II) and are therefore good oxidizing agents.
PbO2 is a case in point.
It was noted in Chapter 19 that it was used in lead-acid storage cells.
Pb21Claq2 + 2 H2O1l2 + Cl21g2 Edegcell is a compound.
There is a yellow oil that reacts with the air in a way similar to the way lead reacts with water.
Tin and lead are not the same.
Lead(II) chloride is a white insoluble ionic solid, while tin(II) chloride is a covalent solid.
The molecule is a V-shaped one in the gas phase.
Because of the lone pair, we might expect the base to be named after Lewis.
It acts as a Lewis acid.
For example, reacts with a substance to form a substance.
There are important uses for both tin-cl2 and tin-cl4.
Tin(II) chlo ride is used in the quantitative analysis of iron ores to reduce iron(III) to iron(II) in a solution.
The form of tin recovered from scrap tinplate is called Tin(IV) chloride.
Tin(II) fluoride was used as an anticavity enhancer to toothpaste but has largely been replaced by NaF in gel toothpastes.
One of the fewsoluble lead compounds is Pb1NO322.
chrome yellow is a yellow color caused by lead(II) chromate PbCrO4 being added to Pb1NO3221aq2
Lead has been used in plumbing systems since the ancient Romans.
Lead can be found in cooking and eating utensils and pottery glazes.
Lead poisoning was the cause of "dry bellyache" for some North Carolina residents who drank rum from New England.
The equipment used to make the rum was made of lead.
Depression and nervousness are caused by mild forms of lead poisoning.
More severe cases can cause permanent damage.
Lead causes the heme group in hemoglobin to be disrupted.
The effects of Pb>dL in blood can be seen in small children.
The drop in lead levels in blood is a result of the phaseout of leaded gasoline.
The graph shown in Figure 21-35 shows a decline in blood lead levels as well as a decline in the use of lead in gasoline.
Lead-based painted surfaces in old buildings and soldered joints in plumbing systems are the main sources of lead contamination.
Lead has been eliminated from modern plumbing solder.
The disposal of lead is closely monitored.
Most of the lead metal production is provided by recycling.
There was a decline in the level of lead in the blood of a representative human population, just as there was a decline in the use of lead in gasoline in the 1970s.
The metallic tin is kept in contact with the Sn2 to prevent air oxidation.
This contact helps prevent oxidation.
GaAs may be one of the most versatile high-tech materials of our time.
Chapter 21 of Gallium Arsenide has a feature called "Focus On" on the MasteringChemistry site where you can discuss some of its properties.
The bonding in affinity, electronegativity, and diborane are described by the trends in atomic or ionic radii, ionization energy, electron two-electron bonds.
The principal metal of group 13 is aluminum, which is the most active of the metals, as indicated by the fact that large-scale use is made possible by an effective their low ionization energies and large negative electrode method of production.
The basis for separating Al2O3 from magnesium in group 2 is the same as the basis for separating Al2O3 from impurities.
Most of the alkali metals are Fe2O3.
molten Na and molten salts are used to carry out lysis.
It's very reactive.
A Lewis acid and an anionic sulfate group are attached to each other by a long-chain hydrocarbon termi molecule.
Some group 2 metals are prepared by the 21-5 Group 14: The Carbon Family-- Group 14 electrolysis of a molten salt and some with one nonmetal, two metalloids and chemical reduction.
Group 14 is notable for the carbonates, especially the differences between the first two members.
The proper pounds of the form species include the anion 3MX ties exhibited by the pairs of elements.
One nonmetal, B, and the metals Al, Ga, In, and Tl can be found in the Boron Family.
The elements sieve and treat hard water.
Tin and lead can be obtained by reducing their oxides.
The metal has some similarities.
The soft met lurgical method of converting a sulfide to an oxide has low melting points.
If you don't perform detailed calculations, you can show that the reaction correctly describes the dissolving action of rain on limestone.
The dissolution of cal is described by the relevant equations.
Carbonic acid is 2 in water.
The carbonate 2O D H3O+ + CO3 K ion concentration observed in a carbonic acid solution is much greater than the CaCO3 solution.
The carbonate ion from the dissolution of CaCO3 acts as a common ion in the carbonic acid equilibrium when the two processes occur.
The qualitative correctness of the reaction has been assessed.
It is more difficult to calculate the quantitative extent of the dissolution of CaCO31s2 in rain.
The partial pressure of atmospheric CO2 in equilibrium with rain affects the calculation.
Data is given in Chapter 16, Practice example A.
When NaCN and Al1NO323 are dissolved in water, write chemical equations for the reactions that occur.
Data from Appendix D can be used to explain why a precipitate of Al1OH23 forms when equal volumes of NaCN and Al1NO323 are mixed.
CaSO41s2 + 2 NaOH1aq2.
Write a net ionic equation.
molten NaOH was used as the electrolyte.
A 1.26 L sample of KCl(aq) is electrolyzed for 3.50 minutes and has a current of 0.910 A.
The power needed to regulate the heartbeat is 5.0 mW.
The starting material is outlined in the diagram.
The final product of the reac is Mg metal.
The principle of conser indicated substances seems to have been violated by this process.
As written, Mg1HCO3221s2 is heated to a high temperature.
Appendix D is needed for Ba21l2.
The formula B4H10 is used for the molecule tetraborane.
Lewis structures should be written for the following species.
The metal sample in the testing can be destroyed.
Write chemical equations to represent an event.
The oxidation states of the atoms in a perborate obtained aluminum can be assigned based on the structure of page 1003.
To represent the reactions, write chemical equations.
The compounds do not exist because of the ex reaction.
In some foam-type fire extinguishers, the reactants give very unstable B8F12 and BF3.
The B8F12 molecule is found in Al21SO4231aq2 and NaHCO31aq2.
When the extin is unstable, the reactants mix and produce a ring of boron atoms.
Write a balanced chemical equation.
To rep B8F12, write a net ionic equation.
Two of the six units in the B8F12 resent this reaction.
Gallium trichloride is a very active catalyst.
When water is added to this mix.
The compounds CO21g2 and Al1OH231s2 are two solid state compounds and GaCl3 is a dimer with the formula of the products.
Draw a structure for the two products.
To represent from PbO2, write a chemical equation.
PbO2 is a good oxidizer.
Carbon tetrachloride and S2Cl2 can be formed by 10-4 M2 to MnO4.
Aqueous tin(II) ion is a good reducing agent.
There is further reaction of carbon disulfide and S2Cl2 pro use data.
Write Sn2+(aq) is a good reducing agent that can be used to reduce a series of equations.
Would you expect the silanol molecule to react to H2O?
A chemical that should exist as a solid is to melt and maintain molten NaOH.
Commercial process for the production of on a storeroom shelf is preferred for the mixture of solid and liquid in a container.
Give a plausible reason for that.
Give a reason for the discrepancy.
The ion is stable in only a small piece of dry ice when added to a solution.
CsI3 is stable with respect to Ca1OH221aq2.
To explain the ion, write chemical equations and suggest a reason why CsI3 is stable.
The melting point of NaOH is 322 degC.
The electrolysis of 0.250 L of 0.220 M MgCl2 is a metal ion.
A mixture of H2 and water energy changes and the enthalpy changes for the vapor is collected at 23 degrees.
If the process is carried to C/ hydrGdeg and C/hydrHdeg respecively, will it be marked by Mg1OH221s2?
LiO21s2 has never been isolated.
An aluminum production cell of the type pictured in LiO21s2 and assess whether LiO21s2 is thermodynam Figure 21-24 operates at a current of 1.00 * 105 A and ically stable with respect to Li2O1s2 and O21g2.
The Kapustinskii equation can be used to produce chemical change.
The mass of Al can be produced by this cell.
If the electrical energy is needed to power this cell.
The process O21g2 + e- is used in a power plant that has an effi of 43 kJ mol-1.
If the dation of the anode to CO21g2 permits LiO21s2 to be stable with respect to the electrolysis to occur at a lower voltage than if Li2O1s2 and O21g2, then you should use your result from part (c) to 2 Al1l2 should be neglected.
A saturated solution of Pb1NO322 product is obtained.
All the Ca appears in has a relative humidity of 97%.
A balanced equation is needed for this reaction.
Each case can have the dissolution of MgCO31s2 in NH.
The crystal structure was deduced by Li.
The relationship of elec water contains trace amounts of magne trode potentials.
Expressed as grams of salt per liter.
A set of three steps for the reduction of water should be estimated.
How does your estimate compare to the H+?
Lake water calls for a pinch of borax.
They are at the site of underwater solutions.
If not for the fresh water entering through the Sierra Nevada mountains, the lake level would be lowered by three meters per year.
The salts in the lake are the chlorides, bicarbonates, and sulfates of sodium.
Na is being used as the reducing agent.
A chemist knows that CaSO4 2 H2O, with ammonium carbonate to toward oxygen than is iron, is more reactive than iron.
There was evidence provided in the water.
Write chemical equations to represent the strongest reducing agent in each outcome.
Why is aluminum likely to happen if it is so reactive?
There are several substances listed.
The following descriptions are given in a chemical dictionary.
The pair reacts with water.
The chemical equations are based on the descriptions.