A group of people are in the dark waters of the River Styx.
The figures of Michelangelo and Rubens were compared to classical serenity by friendly critics.
Delacroix once traveled to Algeria, responding to the Romantic taste for exotic.
His paintings of lion hunts and the Muslim court and concubines grew out of that experience.
The English artists J. M. W. Turner and John Constable painted about the love of nature.
Turner's paintings are not realistic.
He gave his landscapes and seascapes a sense of mystery.
A squat black tug is the symbol of steam over sail, iron over timber and efficiency over beauty.
Turner showed the ship to the sky and sea.
A reddish light is cast on the water at sunset.
Like Goya, he depicts a grim event, but the real brutality is behind a menacing group of horsemen.
Delacroix leaves the viewer to imagine what may happen next, but everything suggests that it won't be good.
His love of the English countryside was similar to that of Wordsworth, but he studied nature with the eye of a scientist, and though he finished his canvases indoors, he worked from oil sketches prepared in the open.
His paintings were so different from the commonplace studio landscapes of the period that they created a sensation at first showing.
He wanted nature to speak for itself.
The Gothic style of medieval England was revived by this building in the 19th century, but no medieval government building had such regular and symmetrical facades.
Baroque and classical architecture inspired the belief that buildings had to be orderly in appearance to express the pride of nations.
Like the Renaissance revivers of Roman architecture before them, the Romantic revivers of Gothic architecture adapted an earlier style to ideas and needs of their own time.
In the 19th century, architectural style became more and more a matter of taste.
Most of the older buildings still standing in Europe were built in the 19th century.
They show a variety of styles springing from the architectural revivals.
Sometimes the architect aimed at a "pure" style, sometimes at a mixed one, and sometimes at an original design.
Banks and government buildings were usually built in the Roman or Greek style by the mid-century.
The Gothic is associated with Romanticism.
The Gothic revival first appeared in England before the French Revolution.
The Gothic revival was given new force by the Romantic movement after the turn of the 19th century.
After the old building burned down, the lawmakers decided to rebuild it in the style of the 13th century.
A Romantic attachment to the medieval past led to the remodeling of the house by the writer and the son of a noted statesman.
Despite the addition of spires and towers, the result was anything but Gothic.
Several "medieval" castles began to appear across the North Sea in Germany.
The Gothic revival was popular in Europe and America.
The eighteenth-century classical style in music stressed order, grace, and clarity, while the nineteenth century cast off restraint and released the emotional power of music.
The classical style was submerged in the Romanticism.
Both styles were bridged by Ludwig van Beethoven.
He followed established forms throughout most of his life, and his early works were similar to those of Mozart.
His later works are marked by heightened drama, suspense, and brilliant climaxes.
Beethoven's works are contained within an orderly pattern and he never lost control of his musical themes.
Beethoven's orchestra was nearly twice the size of Haydn's and was called for more volume and range of sound.
The number of strings, winds, and percussion instruments was enlarged.
The symphony was the most popular form.
The music was rich and often dissonant, and it was subject to sudden or subtle changes.
The Romantic style had a number of leading composers, including an Austrian, a Pole, a Frenchman, and a Russian.
Today's serious music is performed in the concert hall, on the air, and on records, CDs, and tapes by Romantic composers.
The high point of Romanticism was in the opera house.
A new concept of opera--or music-drama, as he preferred to call it, was created by Richard Wagner.
The Romantic spirit was personified byWagner.
He believed that the unity of thought and feeling should be reflected in all art forms.
The opera was modeled on the performances of Greek tragedy.
It joined poetry, music, scenery, and action into one unified whole.
The "Ring cycle," a sequence of operas, is an example of his idea of form.
The drama is centered on the curse of gold and the lust for power.
Instead of writing separate speeches, arias, chorus, and accompaniments,Wagner created an "endless melody" out of all the musical elements.
His music is full of passion and suspense.
The stress on emotion and the increased capabilities of the orchestra were reflected in Italian opera.
Verdi chose plots that focused on the most human feelings and set them to thrilling vocal music.
He used stories in his operas to inspire the desire for liberty and nationhood in Italy.
The conservative reaction that followed the defeat of revolutionary France slowed the spread of liberal and national revolution, but in the long run it could not reverse it.
The forces of change were too strong to be contained.
The appeal of liberal Romantic ideas to educated young people of all classes, resentment of the middle classes against absolutism and privilege, and continued deprivation among the urban poor were included.
On the other side, the conservative rulers and nobles, divided by traditional power rivalries, were not so united and determined as they seemed.
The emergence of a new Europe in the 19th century was dominated by the hopes and ideals of nationalism and liberalism.
In the first decade after the Congress of Vienna, most uprisings in favor of liberal democracy and national unity were quickly suppressed.
The Ottoman Turks were the only ones who achieved revolutionary successes.
The Spanish and Portuguese colonies in Latin America gained their independence in 1824.
The victory of liberal forces in France in 1830 turned the struggle on its head.
The reforms introduced by the revolution and Napoleon were preserved by France despite the restoration of the Bourbon king in 1814.
In 1789, the moderate bourgeois wanted a legislature that represented the restored nobility and well-to-do members of the business class.
Charles X succeeded his brother, Louis, in 1824.
Charles was a leader of the emigres who had urged other European nobles and princes to attack France after 1789.
He and his friends decided to turn back the clock after becoming king.
They wanted the government to make yearly payments to former nobles whose lands had been taken during the revolution, and they wanted a return of clerical influence in education and politics.
Charles was contemptuous of the popular criticism of his measures.
Charles dissolved the Chamber, changed voting rights to strengthen the power of the former nobles, and suppressed the press when the Chamber refused to bend to his will.
The barricades were thrown up in the streets of Paris.
The police and troops of the Republic refused to open fire.
Charles abdicated and left for England because he didn't want to share the fate of Louis XVI.
The rebels were not sure what to do next.
The workmen, students, and intellectuals who had hoisted the revolutionary tricolor at the city hall demanded that the monarchy give way to a republic.
The politicians felt that their interests would be safer under a monarchy.
They wanted a king who would serve their purposes.
Prince Louis-Philippe was a member of the Bourbon family and fought on the side of the revolution in 1789.
The Marquis de Lafayette was persuaded to support Louis-Philippe.
The Bourbon prince was acceptable to those who wanted a republic.
Liberal and democratic practices were extended by the reign of Louis-Philippe.
The number of voters was double what it had been before.
The Metternich System was struck a blow by the French.
The first uprising outside of France happened in the Belgian Netherlands.
The Congress of Vienna decided to join the terri tory to the independent Dutch Netherlands.
Metternich and his colleagues had hoped that a united Netherlands would be a barrier to the French.
The Dutch were mostly Protestant, while the Belgians were mostly Catholic, and the French-speaking population of southern Belgium resented the required use of the Dutch language in most areas.
After the July uprising in France, there was discontent with the Dutch king, William I.
The Belgian leaders wanted only local self-rule.
They declared for complete independence when William took up arms against them.
The Dutch king was held off by the Belgians.
An international conference in London provided for an independent Belgium, with a German prince as the constitutional monarch.
The independence and neutrality of the new state were guaranteed by the major European powers after King William recognized it.
The Polish people had failed to reestablish their homeland's independence.
The personal rule of Alexander I gave control of most of Poland to Russia.
The Polish assembly of nobles rejected Alexander's successor Nicholas I as their king and he sent a large army and crushed the Polish forces.
In 1830, revolutionary stirrings were put down in Germany and Italy.
Liberal nationalist forces in Europe were kept in check only by political and military measures.
Liberal ideas and practices made a big impact in Britain.
Parliament moved away from a mercantilist economy towards free international trade.
The political rights of Catholics and Dissenting Protestants were equal to those of the Anglicans.
The Reform Bill changed the voting franchise and the system of representation in the House of Commons.
The act assigned seats to the growing urban and industrial centers of the North and the Midlands at the expense of districts in the South.
The individual right to vote was tied to property ownership, but more relaxed requirements almost doubled the number of eligible voters.
The Reform Bill gave the middle class more power in the Commons than the landed gentry.
Extending the vote to women was one of the reforms that it opened the door to.
The threat of violence was decisive in the transformation of the British.
The Reform Bill was driven through Parliament under the pressure of street demonstrations and signs of possible insurrection.
The English "Radicals" wanted to go far beyond the liberals in changing British society and politics.
Some of the new industrialists, like Robert Owen, were also action-minded.
The American Tom Paine was inspired by older writers.
They demanded radical changes in voting laws, Parliament, courts, prisons, and the privileges of the lords.
The changes were brought about in England.
The controlling powers of Parliament showed enough skill to allow mild reforms, rather than face the risk of rebellion.
The strongholds of privilege proved to be unbending on the Continent.
Rather than try to change it, the conservatives wanted to keep it the same.
Louis-Philippe, the "citizen-king," was unpopular in France.
The radicals wanted to discard the monarchy and establish a republic with universal voting rights, while the liberals only wanted a limited extension of voting rights.
Louis-Philippe could have gained more support and kept his crown if he had relented to the liberals.
In February 1848, the streets of Paris bristled with barricades after he rejected any constitutional change.
The king sailed for England after the royal troops refused to march against the people.
Before the 19th century, revolutions were usually broken out in one country at a time, but after the 19th century, they were more likely to spread.
The collapse of the monarchy in France led to uprisings in fifteen other cities across Germany, Italy, and the Austrian Empire, where educated middle-class people and urban workers joined forces to call for government and social reform.
The pattern for future change in Europe was set by the revolutionaries.
The republican leaders in Paris were concerned about social issues.
They spoke about the growing number of workers in the capital.
These "proletarians" were the victims of low income, insecurity, and poor working conditions.
The republicans in Paris succeeded in establishing a republic.
They arranged for a universal male vote in a Constituent Assembly to frame a new basic law for France.
The sentiment of the nation as a whole was represented by the Assembly, which met in May.
It did not favor social or economic reforms.
Most of the aroused workers of the city wanted the government to establish industrial workshops as a means of providing employment.
Fearing that the majority of the Assembly would reject their demands, groups of workers attacked it, and yet again the barricades went up.
The result was very different this time.
Ten thousand people were killed or wounded in Paris in a class war that started in the 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 The regular army was called upon to defend the Assembly and crushed the revolt.
The threat of social revolution shook the bourgeois.
The new constitu tion drafted by the Assembly provided for a legislature and a president with strong powers.
The candidate who promised the most to both sides in the civil struggle won the presidential elections.
Prince Louis Napoleon Bonaparte was a nephew of the famous Corsican and he stood for both social order and social change.
He became president of the Second Republic after dominating his rivals.
He was elected for a new term of ten years after bringing about the dissolution of the legislature.
The Second Empire was proclaimed in 1852 by this shrewd politician.
The counterrevolution was repeated beyond the borders of France.
Liberal demands were mixed with nationalist hopes in central Europe.
In a dozen capitals, revolutionaries called for the unity and independence of their own national groups.
The monarchs and ruling classes were frightened by the demonstrations and responded with concessions or new constitutions.
The organized force needed to hold their gains was missing from the protesting movements.
When it became clear that they could be stopped by military action, the authorities withdrew their concessions, and put down the rebels with troops and police.
The peasants who were still serfs won their freedom, but liberal reforms were checked.
The movements of 1848 had consequences.
The Austrian Empire felt the biggest shock.
Prince Metternich was the leader of "legitimacy" and conservatism.
He resigned as imperial chancellor and went to London because of a liberal uprising in Vienna.
The flight of Metternich brought joy and hope to the advocates of change.
Metternich could return to Vienna to write his memoirs after the imperial troops suppressed the disturbances in the Habsburg domain.
The Metternich System was broken when he was no longer in power.
Nationalist ambitions were intensified throughout central Europe.
Hungarians, Czechs, Italians, Serbs, Croats, and Romanians became more dissatisfied with the Austrian Empire.
The creation of a large united German state was being looked at by many Germans.
The aim of setting up a German federal union was achieved with the help of delegates from various German territories.
Political disagreements, power rivalries, and the suspicion of the existing authorities frustrated its work, and it broke up in 1849 having achieved nothing.
Within a generation, a united Germany would be created by the more realistic methods of diplomacy and war.
The aims and actions of the liberal and nationalist movements were in keeping with their maturing ideologies.
The nationalist demands were for the political union and independence of distinct cultural groups, while the liberal demands were for extension of voting rights, free expression, guarantees of legal protections, and constitutional checks on government power.
Neither set of aims can be fully understood if you don't know the underlying system of thought.
The result of a trend that started in the Renaissance and continued into the late Middle Ages was the 19th-century liberal thought.
Men like Rabelais, Locke, and Jefferson represented it in the succeeding stages.
The stress on human personality and its free development was central to the thinking of these men.
They believed that this idea could only be realized through the exercise of personal freedom.
Before the French Revolution, the nature of freedom and the proper conditions for its use had been outlined.
The 19th century liberals were aware that "Liberty, Equality, Fraternity" had led to bloodshed and dictatorship, but they kept their basic beliefs.
They became more respectful of history because they realized that human rationality is not enough to overcome the power of old institutions and habits of thought.
They concluded that the will of the majority can be as oppressive as that of a dictator.
If freedom is not guided by morality, it will go astray.
John Stuart Mill was the foremost spokesman of the doctrine of liberalism in England.
The ideal of liberty has had a persistent appeal to people who admire it.
He set out to specify the conditions under which the highest satisfactions can be achieved.
The book accepts that the purpose of human life is the development of one's abilities.
He would give each individual freedom in relation to society and the state.
Mill did not use the doctrine of "natural rights" or the "social contract" to justify his position.
Freedom is essential to the happiness of the individual and the species.
He included females as well as males.
She was an intellectual associate for many years.
Women were seen as equal to men in intelligence by Mill.
Mill was against the drift towards large bureaucratic and cultural conformity.
He was against increases in public services for the benefit of individuals.
He preferred that citizens and groups act on their own initiative to stop the "deadening hand" of centralized power.
Liberty of thought and discussion was Mill's first concern.
He thought it was important to the health of the individual and society.
Mill said that forbidding the expression of an opinion hurts the human race and hurts those who dissent from the opinion more than those who hold it.
In the empire of eastern Europe, Austria, Russia, and Turkey were ruled by a single imperial power.
All other aims were overshadowed by the desire for national unity and independence.
The history of Britain and the United States seemed to show that freedom was based on the unity and independence of the nation.
Unlike Mill, who took Britain's power for granted, the nationalists on the Continent saw the building of a powerful state as the necessary means to full nationhood and individual realization.
Giuseppe Mazzini expressed the special form and tone of this idea in the first half of the century.
He was caught up in the Romantic and nationalist passion of his generation and was inspired by the humanitarian and egalitarian ideals of the Enlightenment.
Most of the major European languages are descended from the ancient Romans and Germanic invaders.
Most of the languages whose speakers lived in the united and independent countries amounted to 25% of the total.
The main mark of nationhood is language.
The change to a Europe where speakers of three-quarters of languages form independent nations was marked by the italic and underlined names.
The nationalist ideal was linked to a sentimental con cern.
The "law of life" requires that individuals embrace the whole human family in their love, and confess their faith in the unity and brotherhood of all peoples.
In other words, a nation, effective action requires cooperation among individuals who can work together in a common language and culture.
The nation was created to serve humanity.
The Chancellor of Prussia, who oversaw the unification of the Rhine of Germany, believed that a country was a fellowship of free and equal men.
When freedom involved dissent from national objectives, the push for national strength through unity reduced freedom.
The historian wrote that the individual's first duty is to obey the state.
The German drive for discipline, unification, and dominance was given academic and philosophical respectability by this influential professor at the University of Berlin.
The failed liberal-nationalist uprisings of 1830 and 1848 were due to lack of organization and power.
The eloquent Mazzini spent most of his years as a revolutionary exile because he worked so hard to rid Italy of foreign occupation.
The achievement of a united Italy in 1870 was far from being realized by the man who lived to see it.
Italian unification was part of a larger struggle that brought about German unification and was mostly conducted by wars among states.
The consequences for Europe and the world were most profound when it came to practical means to national unification.
After the disappointment of 1848, German nationalists looked for more effective means of bringing their dreams to fulfillment.
Count Otto von Bismarck was certain he knew what he was doing.
He rose to power as a high official in the Prussian kingdom.
Frederick the Great admired militarism and autocracy.
He wanted the king of Prussia to use the army to restore order and civil disobedience.
The German princelings would never join together through their own efforts, and he had contempt for what the people could accomplish.
The important decisions and actions had to be taken by the ruler and ministers of Prussia, he thought.
Appointed chief minister to the Hohenzollern king of Prussia, and sought to remove whatever stood in the way of German unification.
Austria was the main obstacle for Metternich to establish and maintain Austrian dominance in central Europe, and he and his successors looked with fear upon the ambitions of Prussia.
Prussia cooperated with Austria in a military campaign to take the duchies of Schleswig and Holstein from the Danes, but the two powers disagreed over the division of their conquests.
Prussia invaded Austria and its allied German states in the 19th century.
The Prussians were able to defeat Austria in seven weeks after reorganizing and modernizing their army.
Prussia was given all the influence over northern Germany by the Austrians.
The German Confederation was abolished and replaced by the North German Confederation.
Most of the German states were included in the union.
For the French, like the Austrians, they were against a strong and united Germany.
Prussia and France viewed a military confrontation as inevitable, and diplomatic maneuvering and insults led to a declaration of war by France in 1870.
The death of one empire and the birth of another was a result of the FrancoPrussian War.
Prussia was supreme in Germany, and Germany was supreme in Europe, according to the ambitions of the imperial chancellor.
The rulers of the Italian kingdom of Sardinia played the same role in unifying Italy as they did in Prussia.
Sardinia needed help against Austria since it was not a great power like Prussia.
When Napoleon cooled toward Italian unification, Cavour won the support of Austria's great power rivals.
Cavour was able to bring about Sardinian takeovers of territories in northern and central Italy, notably the States of the Church.
In southern Italy, he was able to get the cooperation of Giuseppe Garibaldi.
The pope was protected by Napoleon III's troops in Rome, even though a united kingdom of Italy existed by 1870.
The kingdom of Italy annexed Rome when the French troops left after the war against Prussia.
Italy and Germany have become dependent members of the European state system.
The central fact of international relations would be this.
Germany, which had achieved unity and strength by the methods of authority, discipline, and militarism, was determined to win its "place in the sun" after its late arrival as a state.
The First and Second World Wars were climaxed by the successful revolutions of national unification.
The old balance depended on keeping Germany and Italy weak and divided but independent of any one of their stronger neighbors.
The crumbling of Ottoman rule was creating a new area of weakness and division in the Balkans, as rivalries were turning into national ones and Germany was the most powerful Continental country.
The World History Resources Center at http://history.wadsworth.com/west_civ/ offers a variety of tools to help you succeed in this course.