Chapter 24 -- Part 2: Ideologies of Change in Europe
Prior to 1850, Italy had never been a unified nation.
Italy was reorganized in 1814 at the Congress of Vienna.
Lombardy and Venetia are rich northern provinces.
Tuscany shared north-central Italy with several smaller states under the rule of an Italian monarch.
The Bourbons ruled Naples and Sicily while the papacy ruled central Italy and Rome.
The unification of Italy was made possible by the leadership of Sardinia-Piedmont, nationalist fervor, and the attack on the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies.
There was no agreement on how to achieve the goal of a unified Italian nation after 1814.
Giuseppe Mazzini's attempt to form a democratic Italian republic was defeated by Austrian forces.
Pope Pius IX was driven from Rome during the upheavals of 1848 and turned against most modern trends.
Sardinia appeared to be a liberal, progressive state that could be used to drive Austria out of northern Italy and achieve the goal of national unification.
Sardinia was led by Count Camillo Benso di Cavour.
Cavour's national goals were realistic.
Cavour came from a noble family and embraced the economic doctrines associated with the prosperous middle class.
He only wanted unity for the states of northern and central Italy.
Sardinia was consolidated as a liberal constitutional state in the 1850s by Cavour.
He wentaded Austria into attacking Sardinia after entering a secret alliance with Napoleon III.
The Franco-Sardinian forces were victorious, but Napoleon III decided to compromise with the Austrians in order to avoid offending French Catholics.
Lombardy is the area around Milan.
Cavour resigned in protest.
Cavour's plans were salvaged by popular revolts and Italian nationalism.
While the war against Austria raged 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 The people of central Italy voted overwhelmingly to join the kingdom of Sardinia after Cavour returned to power.
Cavour's original goal was to create a north Italian state.
The job of unification was incomplete for Giuseppe Garibaldi.
The romantic revolutionary nationalism of 1848 was personified by a poor sailor's son.
Garibaldi emerged as an independent force in Italian politics in 1860 after leading a unit of volunteers to several victories over Austrian troops.
Cavour was behind the landing of Garibaldi on the shores of Sicily in May 1860.
The Sicilian peasantry rose in rebellion because of his band.
Palermo was captured by Garibaldi and he crossed to the mainland.
The union of north and south was sealed when Victor and Garibaldi rode through Naples.
The new kingdom of Italy, which did not include Venice until 1866 or Rome until 1870, was a parliamentary monarchy.
Only a small group of Italians could vote.
The propertied classes and the common people were not on the same page.
Giuseppe Garibaldi is shown in a portrait.
The most triumphant welcome ever given to a foreigner was given to GIUSEPPE GARIBALDI when he visited England in 1864.
He was honored and feted by politicians and high society.
A crowd of half a million people cheered his carriage through the streets of London.
These ovations were not a coincidence.
Garibaldi was the most famous and beloved figure in the world in his time.
His status as a demigod was partly due to a combination of wild adventure and extraordinary achievement.
Garibaldi went to sea at fifteen and sailed the Mediterranean for twelve years.
Garibaldi escaped to South America after being sentenced to death for his part in a revolutionary uprising.
He was the leader of a band that fought for independence from Argentina.
He found a tough young woman, Anna da Silva, a mate and companion in arms.
Their first children were almost starving in the jungle while Garibaldi was a fearless freedom fighter.
The campaigns of his patriotic volunteers against the Austrians in the 19th century helped mobilize democratic nationalists.
The stage was set for his army to liberate Sicily and create a large Italian state.
Garibaldi's achievement was similar to his legend.
The leader was an uncompromising idealist of absolute integrity.
He milked his goats and rarely had more than one change of clothing.
Even as the left-leaning volunteers were dismantled and humiliated, Garibaldi refused to be bought off, even after Victor Emmanuel offered him lands and titles.
The government betrayed the dream of unification with its ruthless rule in the south when he returned to his farm.
Even though the Italian government caused two attacks on Rome to fail, his faith in the generative power of national unity never wavered.
In history, ideas and ideals count.
Millions of ordinary men and women identified with Garibaldi because they believed he was fighting for them.
They saw that he was one of their own and that he remained true to them despite his successes.
Welcoming runaway slaves as equals in Latin America, advocating the emancipation of women, introducing social reforms in the south, and pressing for free education and a broader speach in the new Italy, were some of the things the national hero fought for.
The common people loved him for it.
Nationalism developed in the 19th century.
Austria and Prussia sought to block the power of the other within the German Confederation in the aftermath of 1848.
The political status quo was being undermined by powerful economic forces.
A new Germany without Austria was becoming an economic reality after all the German states joined the customs union.
Middle-class liberals were spurred on by the rapid growth of industrialization after 1850.
The parliament that emerged from the upheavals of 1848 in Prussia was assumed control by liberals.
Prussia's tough-minded Wilhelm I was convinced that political change and even war with Austria or France was possible after the national uprising in Italy in 1859.
I wanted to raise taxes and increase the defense budget to double the army's size.
The middle class's desire for a less militaristic society was reflected in the parliament's rejection of the military budget in 1862.
Count Otto von Bismarck was asked by King Wilhelm to head a new ministry and defy the parliament.
He loved power, but was also flexible and pragmatic in pursuing his goals.
The government would rule without the consent of the parliament, as was declared by the chief minister when he took office.
Even though the parliament refused to approve the budget, the bureaucracy continued to collect taxes.
The voters of Prussia sent large liberal majorities to the parliament in order to express their opposition to the policies of Bismarck.
Austria was to be expelled from German politics by the start of the Austro-Prussian War.
The war lasted only seven weeks.
The German Confederation was dissolved after Austria withdrew from German affairs.
The new North German Confederation included mainly Protestant states north of the Main River.
The army and foreign affairs were under the control of the federal government.
The map shows how Prussia expanded and a new German Empire was created after the Franco-Prussian War.
To make peace with the liberal middle class and the nationalist movement, the Prussian parliament was asked to approve all the government's "illegal" spending between 1862 and 1866.
Middle-class liberals jumped at the chance to cooperate, opting for national unity and military glory over the battle for truly liberal institutions after being overawed by Bismarck's achievements.
Napoleon III's example of creating a legislature with members of the lower house elected by universal male suffrage allowed him to circumvent the middle class and appeal directly to the people if necessary.
The patriotic war against France followed the final act of German unification.
The issue of whether a distant relative of Prussia's Wilhelm I might become king of Spain was only a diplomatic one.
Prussia was alarmed by the French decision to start a war to teach it a lesson.
The support of the south German states was crucial to the success of the war against France.
Louis Napoleon's armies were defeated by the Germans on September 1, 1870.
The French in Paris proclaimed another French republic three days later.
After five months, Paris surrendered and France accepted the peace terms.
The south German states agreed to join the new German Empire.
The Franco-Prussian War made Germans feel patriotic.
Most Germans were proud of the new German Empire, which had become Europe's most powerful state.
In Germany, a new conservatism based on an alliance of the propertied classes and the active support of the working classes had triumphed.
Russia was a poor society with a rapidly growing population in the 1850s.
Serfdom was still the basic social institution, and almost 90 percent of the population lived off the land.
There was a breakdown in the balance of power at the Congress of Vienna, European competition over influence in the Middle East, and Russian desire to expand into European territories held by the Ottoman Empire.
Russia was humiliated by France and Great Britain.
Russia's military defeat showed that it was behind the industrialized nations of western Europe.
The war caused hardship and raised the specter of peasant rebellion.
The new tsar, Alexander II, and his ministers were forced along the path of rapid social change due to military disaster.
The freeing of the serfs was the greatest of the reforms.
The emancipated peasants received about half of the land, which was to be collectively owned by the peasant villages.
Collective ownership limited the possibilities of agricultural improvement and migration to urban areas because of high prices for the land.
The reform's effects were limited.
Independent courts and equality before the law were established as a result of the reform of the legal system.
The government loosened its policies toward Russian Jews.
Russia's greatest strides toward modernization were economic.
Agricultural Russia was able to export grain due to rapid railroad construction.
Industrial suburbs were around Moscow and St.
The class of modern factory workers began to take shape.
Russia began seizing territory in far eastern Siberia, on the border with China, in Central Asia, and in the Islamic lands of the Caucasus.
The reform era came to an end after Alexander II was assassinated.
The minister of finance was the key leader.
By the end of the century, the government doubled Russia's railroad network and promoted Russian industry with high protective tariffs.
Russia was expanding its empire in Asia by 1900.
Russia had established a sphere of influence in Chinese Manchuria by 1903.
In February 1904, the Japanese launched a surprise attack on the Russian forces in Manchuria.
Russia was defeated by Japan in September 1905.
Political upheaval at home was caused by the military disaster in East Asia.
Workers peacefully protesting for better working conditions and higher wages were attacked by the tsar's troops outside the Winter Palace in 1905.
The event known as "Bloody Sunday" set off a wave of strikes and peasant uprisings across Russia.
The general strike in October 1905 forced the government to capitulate.
Full civil rights and real legislative power were promised in the October Manifesto.
The result of a great general strike in Russia in October 1905 gave full civil rights and promised a legislature with real power.
On January 22, 1905, Russian troops opened fire on striking workers who had gathered in front of the Winter Palace to present their grievances to the tsar.
Over a hundred demonstrators died and hundreds more were injured in the ensuing massacre.
The event helped awaken resistance to the government.
Nicholas II retained great powers under the new constitution.
Efforts to cooperate with the tsar's ministers broke down as the middle-class liberals were badly disappointed.
Nicholas II and his advisers changed the electoral law to increase the weight of the propertied classes.
Russia was a modernized nation on the eve of World War I, a conservative constitutional monarchy with an industrializing economy.
By 1900 western Europe was an urban and industrial place.
In the 19th century rapid urban growth worsened overcrowding and unhealthy living conditions, lending support to voices calling for revolutionary change.
The introduction of social welfare measures encouraged people to put their faith in a responsive national state as government leaders, city planners, reformers, and scientists sought to improve the urban environment.
European cities have been centers of government, culture, and large-scale commerce since the Middle Ages.
They had been dirty and congested.
These conditions were worsened by industrialization.
The steam engine freed industrialists from dependence on the energy of streams and rivers so that by 1800 there was every incentive to build new factories in cities, which had better shipping facilities and a large and ready workforce.
As industry grew, so did the number of overcrowded and unhealthy cities.
In the 19th century, people in Britain and France began to worry about the condition of their cities.
narrow houses were built in long rows and there were almost no parks or open areas.
Highly concentrated urban populations lived in extremely unsanitary conditions, with open drain and sewer lines flowing in and out of the streets.
Hundreds of thousands of people were killed in a European cholera epidemic in the 19th century.
The urban challenge brought an energetic response from a generation of reformers.
The most famous reformer was a British official.
In 1842, after collecting reports from local officials and publishing his findings, he concluded that the stinking excrement of communal outhouses could be carried off by water through sewers at less than one-twentieth the cost of removing it by hand.
Dedicated supporters in the United States, France, and Germany supported sanitary movements.
The belief that people contract disease when they breathe foul odors handicapped early sanitary reformers.
Doctors and public health officials suggested in the 1840s and 1850s that infectious diseases could be spread through physical contact with filthy people and not by their odors.
Pasteur's work showed that living organisms could cause diseases and that they could be controlled.
The discoveries led to the development of vaccines.
The germ theory was applied to hospitals by surgeons, who sterilized everything that entered the operating room.
The spread of living organisms can be controlled to prevent disease.
Millions of lives were saved after about 1890 because of the public health movement.
Death rates in England, France, and Germany declined dramatically, and many diseases became extinct in the industrialized nations.
The quality of urban life was improved by more effective urban planning after 1850.
Napoleon III believed that rebuilding Paris would provide employment, improve living conditions, and strengthen his empire.
The old medieval core of Paris was destroyed by Baron Georges Haussmann (1809-1884), who was placed in charge of Paris by Napoleon III.
The goal of the broad boulevards was to prevent a repeat of the easy construction and defense of barricades that occurred in 1848.
After 1870, the rebuilding of Paris stimulated urban development throughout Europe.
Buthe capital of Argentina emerged between 1880 and 1910.
The wide boulevards were brought to Paris by Baron Haussmann in the mid-nineteenth century.
In the improvement of urban living conditions, mass public transportation was important.
Thestreetcar, an American transit innovation, was adopted in Europe and America in the 1890s.
Millions of riders hopped on board during the workweeweekends and holidays streetcars carried city people on outings tand the countryside, racetracks, and music halls.
Outside of Europe, the growth of global trade led to the rise of the middle class.
The rapid growth of mining centers across the world was caused by the huge appetite of industrializing natraw materials, food, and other goods.
Alexandria, the major port for transporting Egyptian cotton, was included.
European urban planning was copied by many new cities.
The living conditions of the working class were finally improved by 1850.
The gap between rich and poor was not narrowed by economic rewards.
On the eve of World War I, economic inequality in Europe reached its highest point in the 19th century.
The richest 20 percent of households received anywhere from 50 to 60 percent of all national income, while the bottom 30 percent of households received 10 percent or less of all income.
The gap between rich and poor in the early twentieth century was as wide as it had ever been, despite the promises of the political and economic revolutions of the late eighteenth century.
The class divisions of society were reflected in early-twentieth-century advertisements.
Marx had predicted that society would split into two sharply defined opposing classes.
Between the tiny elite of the very rich and the sizable mass of the dreadfully poor existed a range of subclasses, each filled with individuals struggling to rise or at least to hold their own in the social order.
Occupations requiring mental, rather than physical, skill were linked to a confederation of middle classes.
The upper middle class, composed mainly of successful business families, gained in income and lost all traces of radicalism after the trauma of 1848, but they were drawn to the lifestyle of the aristocracy.
A group of moderately successful industrialists and merchants, professionals in law and medicine, and midlevel managers of large public and private institutions were one step below.
The most valuable of the specialties became middle-class professions as the industry and technology expanded.
The lower middle class came next.
The lower middle class was diversified by industrialization and urbanization.
White-collar employees were generally committed to the middle class and wanted to move up in society.
Middle-class values were expressed in food, housing, clothes, and behavior.
The clearest sign that a family had crossed the divide from the working classes into the middle classes was the employment of a full-time maid.
The middle-class wife was free from domestic labor and used her appearance and home to show the family's status.
The code of expected behavior and morality was shared by the middle classes.
Four out of five Europeans belonged to the working class at the beginning of the twentieth century.
Many of them were small landowning peasants and hired farm hands.
The middle class was more unified than the urban working class.
The traditional range of working-class skills, earnings, and experiences was expanded during the 19th century by economic development and increased specialization.
The lifestyles and cultural values of skilled, semi skilled, and unskilled workers contributed to a sense of social status and hierarchy within the working classes.
Construction bosses and factory foremen led them.
The labor aristocracy included members of the traditional highly skilled handicraft trades that had not transitioned to mechanized production, as well as new kinds of skilled workers such as shipbuilders and railway locomotive engineers.
The world of semi skilled and unskilled urban workers was below the labor aristocracy.
Many of the semi skilled were factory workers who earned good wages and whose importance in the labor force was increasing.
A larger group of unskilled workers were below the semi skilled workers.
These industries were similar to the old putting-out and cottage industries of earlier times.
After the advethe sewing machine was invented in the 1850s, the women worked at home and were paid by the piece.
The urban working classes were able to have fun despite their bad lives.
Sports and music halls were a favorite leisure activity in Europe.
Although church attendance among the urban working classes declined in the late 19th century, religion still provided solace and meaning.
Modern cities have brought about changes to the lives of women and families.
Women in poor families tended to work outside the home as economic conditions improved.
The ideal became separate spheres, the strict division of labor made it difficult for married women to move into paid employment outside the home.
A woman's wage was almost always less than a man's, even for the same work, because well-paying jobs were off-limits to women.
Middle-class men did not marry until they were established in their careers because they needed to support their wives.
Older men and younger women were encouraged to marry each other.
Men were encouraged to see themselves as protectors of their wives.
The control and influence of women in the home became strong in Europe in the late 19th century because of the ideology and practice of rigidly separate spheres.
The ideals of domestic comfort and separate spheres were not fully realized by working-class families by 1900.
The working-class wife took charge of all major domestic decisions and decided how the family's money was spent.
The woman's guidance of the household went hand in hand with the increased emotional importance of home and family for all social groups.
There were different ideas about sexuality in marriage.
The French marriage manual of the late 19th century said that women had legitimate sexual needs.
Sex manual in the United States recommended that unmarried men not have sex and that married men not have sex.
Even the legs of pianos were to be covered as women were thought to experience no sexual pleasure from sexual activity, and anything vaguely sexual was to be removed from their surroundings.
Prostitution, the treatment of venereal disease, and access to birth control were regulated by governments in ways that were shaped by class and gender.
Middle-class women were told how to be better mothers in a wave of books.
The ideas about sexuality and motherhood were tied to the ideas about race.
As European nations embarked on imperialist expansion in the second half of the nineteenth century, the need to maintain the racial superiority that justified empire led to increased concerns.
Maintaining healthy bodies, restricting sexuality, preventing interracial marriages, and ensuring that women properly raised their children were all components of racial strength.
Women in industrialized countries began to limit the number of children they have.
The reduction in family size was founded on parents' desire to improve their economic and social position and that of their children.
Parents could give advantages to their children if they had fewer kids.
Middle-class women faced discrimination in education and employment because of the ideal of separate spheres and the gender division of labor.
Middle-class feminists founded organizations that advocated for legal equality and access to higher education.
British married women were granted full property rights in the late 19th century.
Feminism drew on the idea of legitimacy in speaking out about social issues rather than contesting the idea that women are morally superior caretakers of the home.
Women leaders of the Socialists took a different path.
They argued that the liberation of working-class women would only happen with the liberation of the entire working class.
They won some practical improvements and championed the cause of working women.
Growing up in Vienna in a prosperous Jewish family, Stefan Zweig became an influential voice calling for humanitarian values and international culture in earlytwentieth-century Europe.
Zweig was opposed to the First World War.
His biographies were famous for their psychological portraits of historical figures.
Zweig lived in exile after Hitler came to power.
Zweig recalls the romantic experiences and sexual separation of middle-class youth before the First World War.
During the eight years of our higher school, we were ten years old and Nature began to assert its rights, which was of great importance to each one of us.
It didn't take us long to discover that the authorities in whom we had previously spoken were insincerity in their dealings with us.
On the one hand, this "social morality," which on the one hand assumed the existence of sexuality and its natural course, but on the other would not recognize it openly at any price, was a lie.
While it winked one eye at a young man and even encouraged him with the other "to sow his wild oats," as the kindly language of the home put it, in the case of a woman it studiously shut both eyes and acted as if it were blind.
The custom was that a man could experience desires and be allowed to do so.
In the pre-Freudian era, it was agreed that a female could have no physical desires if she had not been awakened by a man.
In Vienna, the air was full of dangerous erotic infections, and a girl of good family had to live in a completely sterile environment from the day of her birth until the day she left the altar on her husband's arm.
Young girls were not left alone for a single moment in order to protect them.
They had to learn about the history of literature and art.
While the aim was to make them as educated and socially correct as possible, at the same time society took great pains that they should remain innocent of all natural things to a degree unthinkable today.
A young girl of a good family was not allowed to know how the male body was formed, or how children came into the world, for the angel was to enter into matrimony not only physically untouched, but completely "pure" as well.
"Good breeding," for a young girl of that time, was the same as being ignorant of life.