The library could reach almost any part of the state, and the next week they were all in Congress.
I know that some of the material was burned, but miles and miles of iron have gone out of existence.
He might have been talking about the whole antebellum way of life.
The future of the South was not certain.
The concepts of citizenship and equality were at the center of the answers to many of Reconstruction's questions.
It was the most open and widespread discussion of citizenship since the nation's founding.
It was a moment of change.
African Americans were granted legal freedom by the White Democrats.
The legal, political, and social implications of American citizenship were determined when black Americans and their allies secured citizenship for freed people.
Reconstruction collapsed as resistance continued.
Limits on human freedom are still in place in the South.
Reconstruction began before the Civil War ended to reestablish southern states to the Union.
Lincoln began planning for the reunification of the United States in the fall of 1863, with a sense that Union victory was imminent and that he could turn the tide of the war by stoking Unionist support in the Confederate states.
When just 10 percent of a state's voting population took the oath, loyal Unionists were able to establish governments.
The places that were exempt from the liberating effects of the Emancipation Proclamation were also here.
The United States was committed to abolition of slavery by Lincoln's Emancipation Proclama tion.
More than seven hundred thousand slaves were freed in rebellion areas of Delaware, Kentucky, Maryland, and Missouri, as well as in Union-occupied areas of Louisiana, Tennessee, and Virginia.
Congress passed the Thirteenth Amendment to abolish slavery on January 31, 1865.
The reunification of the former Confederate states with the Union was a divisive issue.
Lincoln's Presidential Reconstruction plans were seen as too tolerant of traitors by many, including Radical Republicans in Congress.
The political cartoon shows Lincoln and Johnson stitching the Union back together with little anger toward the South.
Four million people were free from slavery by the end of the year after three fourths of the states approved the amendment.
Lincoln succumbed to his wounds the following morning, leaving a somber pall over the North and especially among African Americans.
Vice President An drew Johnson into the office after Lincoln's assassination.
Southern states were offered a quick restoration into the Union by Johnson, a states' ReconstRuctIon 405 rights, strict-constructionist, and racist from Tennessee.
The Reconstruction plan required the southern governments to void their ordinances of secession, repudiate their Confederate debts, and approve the Thirteenth Amendment.
The convention could do what they wanted with no interference from the federal government.
The southern aristocracy would have to appeal to Johnson for individual pardons, since he pardoned all southerners engaged in the rebellion with the exception of wealthy planters who possessed more than $20,000 in property.
Johnson hoped that a new class of southerners would replace the wealthy in leadership positions.
Legislation was enacted by many southern governments to reestablish antebellum power relationships.
Black Codes were passed in South Carolina and Mississippi to regulate black behavior.
These laws gave some rights to African Americans, like the right to own property.
They denied fundamental rights as well.
White lawmakers forbade black men from serving on juries or in state militias, refused to recognize black testimony against white people, and established severe vagrancy laws.
Mississippi's vagrant law required freedmen to have proof of their employment in order to be arrested and fined.
The sheriff could hire out his prisoner to anyone who would pay the tax if they couldn't pay the fine.
Slavery by another name is what one scholar calls the control over black labor in the South by ambiguous vagrancy laws.
Black people were locked into exploitative farming contracts because of 7 black codes.
Attempts to restore the antebellum economic order were largely successful.
Republicans called for a more dramatic Reconstruction after the mob violence against black southerners.
When Johnson announced that the southern states had been restored, congressional Republicans refused to seat delegates from the newly reconstructed states.
Republicans in Congress responded with legislation to protect freedmen and restructure political relations in the South.
Republicans wanted to give voting rights to freedmen in order to build a new voting bloc.
The majority of Republicans were motivated by their political party, even though some of them believed in racial equality.
Americans understood the moment as critical and revolutionary, even though no one could agree on what the best plan for reconstructing the nation would be.
John Lawrence thinks about what might happen when the North and South come together.
The Civil Rights Act of 1866 was the first federal attempt to define American-born residents as citizens.
The law did not allow any curtailment of citizens' fundamental rights.
Both the Civil Rights Act and the Fourteenth Amendment were developed to ensure their constitutionality.
The Fourteenth Amendment was approved by the House of Representatives.
Due process and discrimination could not be denied by state laws.
The federal government was willing to enforce the Bill of Rights over the authority of the states.
The Civil Rights Act was vetoed by President Johnson because he did not believe African Americans deserved equal rights.
The Reconstruction Act was passed in 1867 after Republicans overrode the veto and won a two-thirds majority in the midterm elections.
States would have to approve the Fourteenth Amendment, write new constitutions and abolish "black codes" before rejoining the union.
The House of Representatives issued articles of impeachment against the president because of his obstructionism.
Congress was given the power to direct a new phase of Reconstruction after Johnson narrowly escaped conviction in the Senate.
Grant promised to protect the status quo on the platform he ran on.
The Democratic candidate promised to repeal Reconstruction.
Grant won most of the former Confederacy with the help of black southern voters.
African American men went to the polls to vote after the passage of the Fifteenth Amendment.
African Americans are depicted as ignorant, unkempt, and lazy in other contemporary images, but this print shows them as active citizens.
The first moment of mass democratic partici pation for African Americans was brought about by Reconstruction.
Only five states in the North allowed African Americans to vote in 1860.
African Americans began to win elections in the South after Congress ordered the elimination of racial discrimination in voting.
Black men voted in large numbers and were delegates to the state constitutional convention in 1868, thanks to the provisions of the congressional Reconstruction Acts.
State constitutions were revised by black delegates.
The establishment of a public school system was one of the most significant accomplishments.
By the end of Reconstruction, every southern state had established a public school system, despite the fact that public schools were virtually useless in the antebellum period.
They wanted industrial development, northern investment, and internal improvements.
During Re construction, African Americans served at every level of government.
Hiram and Blanche K. Bruce were chosen to be U.S. senators from Mississippi.
Fourteen men were in the House of Representatives.
There are at least 270 African American men who served in patronage positions.
More than 1,000 African American men held offices in the South at the state level.
Pinchback was the only African American state governor until L. Douglas Wilder was elected in 1989.
Almost 800 African American men served as state legislators around the South, with African Americans at one time making up a majority in the South Carolina House of Representatives.
Many had gained their freedom before the Civil War.
There were a few moments of true progress during the era of Reconstruction.
African Americans were elected to local, state, and national offices, including both houses of Congress.
The first African American senator is pictured with six black representatives from the former Confederate states.
Some, like William Breedlove from Virginia, owned slaves before the Civil War.
Georgia's James D. helped slaves escape or taught them to read.
African American officeholders gained freedom during the war.
Emanuel Fortune, a shoemaker from Florida, and ministers James D. Lynch and William V. Turner were among them.
They had held leadership roles in their former slave communities when they moved into political office.
Most of the African American officeholders lost their positions.
African Americans did not enter the political arena again in large numbers until after the twentieth century.
General William T. Sherman was frustrated by the number of freed people following his troops.
The land in Georgia and South Carolina was to be set aside as a homestead for the freed people.
The Freedmen's Bureau's main purpose was to redistribute lands to former slaves that had been abandoned and seized by the federal government.
These land grants were not long-lived.
The land that ex-Confederates left behind was returned to them in the 19th century.
The Freedmen's Bureau agents told the freedmen that the promise of land was not going to be honored and that they should return to work for their former owners.
The policy reversal was quite shocking.
The Freedmen's Bureau commissioner General Oliver O. Howard went to Edisto Island to inform the black population about the policy change.
The commission said that they were promised homesteads by the government.
You want us to forgive the land owners.
The man who tied me to a tree and gave me 39 lashes stripped and flogged my mother and sister.
Some agents coerced former slaves into signing contracts with their former masters in order to ensure that crops would be harvest.
If African Americans were mistreated by their employers, the bureau instituted courts where they could seek compensation.
The hope for land redistribution was extinguished when the land reform bills were tabled in Congress.
The Republican Party's commitment to economic stability was more important than their interest in racial justice.
The reconstitution of families was part of the pursuit of freedom.
Many freed people left plantations to look for family members who had been sold.
Information about long-lost relatives was sought in newspaper ads.
The pursuit of family reunification was demonstrated when people placed these ads.
During the war, freed people sought to gain control over their own children, who had been apprentices to white masters, as a result of the Black Codes.
Many freedpeople rushed to solemnize unions with formal wedding ceremonies.
Black people's desire to marry fit the government's goal to make free black men responsible for their own households and to prevent black women and children from becoming dependent on the government.
Freed people put a lot of emphasis on education for their children and themselves.
The ability to finally read the Bible for oneself made work-weary men and women spend all evening or Sunday attending night school or Sunday school classes.
A one-room school with more than fifty students ranged in age from three to eighty.
It was a whole race trying to go to school.
None of them were too old or too young to learn.
As a result of the freedom struggle, many churches served as schoolhouses.
Black southerners who were freed had political and organizational skills.
Antislavery organizations turned church associations were used to develop anti-racist politics and organizational skills.
The proliferation of independent black churches and church associations was one of the more marked changes that took place after eman cipation.
Almost 40 percent of black churches in the 1930s had their organizational roots in the post-emancipation era.
Many of these independent churches were quickly organized into re gional, state, and even national associations, often by brigades of northern and midwestern free blacks who went to the South to help the freedmen.
Tensions between northerners and southerners over educational requirements strained these associations.
Northern urban blacks preferred more orderly worship and an educated ministry, while southern rural blacks preferred more inspired preaching.
The development of independent women's conventions in Baptist, Methodist, and Pentecostal churches was a result of the role of women in churches.
The Baptist Woman's Convention worked to protect black women from sexual violence from white men.
This concern was articulated by black representatives in state constitutional conventions.
Women continued to fight for equal treatment and access to the pulpit as preachers even though they were able to vote in church meetings.
Political leaders and officeholders were ministers.
The largest building in town was often a church.
The foundation for ministers' political leadership was provided by their access to pulpits.
The regalia, ritual, and even hymn of churches were used to inform and shape the practice of groups like the Union League.
Conflict over gender roles, cultural values, practices, and political engagement were provided for by black churches.
Black churches would enter a new phase of negotiation after the rise of Jim Crow.
Reconstruction was more than the meaning of emancipation.
The roles of women within the nation and in their local communities were redefined.
The women's rights movement began to clash with the abolitionist movement.
In the South, both black and white women struggled to comprehend a world of death and change.
Susan B. Anthony and Elizabeth Cady Stanton had a productive relationship for nearly 50 years as they worked to get political rights for women.
Black Americans, as well as women, could seize political rights.
The Women's Loyal National League petitioned Congress for an amendment to abolish slavery, and the result was the Thirteenth Amendment.
As Congress debated the meaning of freedom, equality, and citizenship for former slaves, women's rights leaders saw an opening to change women's status as well.
One year after the war, the Eleventh National Women's Rights Convention met in New York City to discuss what many agreed was an extraordinary moment, full of promise for fundamental social change.
The meeting was presided over by Elizabeth Cady Stanton.
In attendance were some prominent abolitionists who had joined forces with other women's rights leaders in the years leading up to the war.
"Now in the reconstruction," she said, "is the opportunity to base our government on the broad principle of equal rights for all."
Setting an agenda of universal suffrage with intention.
The National Women's Rights Convention merged with the American Anti-Slavery Society to form the American Equal Rights Association.
The culmination of the partnership between the abolitionists and women's rights advocates was marked by this union.
The political climate of the South made it difficult for the AERA to decide whether black male suffragists should be given precedence over universal suffragists.
The pursuit of women's speach was feared to undermine political support for freedmen.
The ballot was a "question of life and death" for southern black men, but not for women, as was argued by AERA member Frederick Douglass.
A freeborn black woman living in Ohio urged them to consider their privilege as white and middle class.
The AERA organized a campaign in Kansas to determine the fate of black and woman suffragists.
The great women's rights and abolition activist, Elizabeth Cady Stanton, was one of the strongest forces in the universal suffrage movement.
Her name can be seen at the top of the petition that was presented to Congress in January of 1865.
It didn't pass, and women wouldn't get the vote for more than half a century because of it.
Anthony traveled to advocate for universal suffrage.
They realized that their allies were moving away from women's suffrage in order to advance black enfranchisement.
They allied with white supremacists who supported women's equality.
There were conflicting views of the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments.
The Fourteenth Amendment was protested by women's rights leaders.
The AERA was dissolved after the Fifteenth Amendment ignored sex as a barrier to speach.
suffragists who supported the Fifteenth Amendment, regardless of its limitations, founded the American Woman Suffrage Association.
The New Departure is a new strategy by the NWSA.
The Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments guaranteed women's speach because of nationalizing citizenship for all people and protecting all rights of citizens.
Between 1868 and 1872, seven hundred women were encouraged to register to vote by the NWSA.
Susan B. Anthony was acquitted after being arrested.
The Supreme Court acknowledged women's citizenship but argued that suffragists weren't guaranteed to all citizens.
The Court's reactionary interpretation of the Reconstruction amendments that limited freedmen's rights coincides with this ruling.
Many suffragists replaced the ideal of universal suffrage with the idea that white women would bring to the polls.
The necessity of white women voters to keep black men in check was one of the new arguments.
The lines between white womanhood and black womanhood were no longer clearly defined.
During the war, southern white women were called on to chop wood and manage businesses.
African American women embraced new freedoms and a redefinition of womanhood while white southern women decided whether or not to return to their prior status.
White women were shown life without their husbands' protection during the Civil War.
Many people didn't like what they saw because of the possibility of racial equality.
The prewar social hierarchy was rebuilt by formerly wealthy women.
The efforts to bury and memorialize the dead were led by southern women through Ladies' Memorial Associations and other civic groups.
The Ladies' Memorial Associations grew out of the Soldiers' Aid Society.
Proponents of the Lost Cause wanted to change the history of the antebellum South to show the brutality of slavery.
The myth that the Civil War was fought over states' rights instead of slavery was created by them.
The Fifteenth Amendment prohibits discrimination in voting rights on the basis of race, color, or previous status.
The amendment was not all inclusive, but it was still significant in affirming the liberties of African American men.
The print depicts a huge parade held in Baltimore, Maryland, on May 19, 1870, surrounded by portraits of abolitionists and scenes of African Americans exercising their rights.
The anniversary of Jackson's death was celebrated by some LMAs and southern women took on political roles in the South.
Southern black women wanted to change their lives.
The southern white women were against their efforts to control their labor.
An African American woman was hired by a plantation mistress to wash dishes because she disliked cooking and washing dishes.
A misunderstanding quickly developed.
The laundress returned home after performing her job.
She became quite frustrated because she believed her money had purchased a day's labor, not just the load of washing.
The washerwoman and others like her set wages and hours for themselves, and in many cases began to take washing into their own homes in order to avoid the scrutiny of white women and the sexual threat posed by white men.
White southerners instituted apprenticeship systems to place African American children in labor positions and demanded that African American women work in the plantation home.
African American women fought back by refusing to work at jobs without fair pay or fair conditions and by clinging to their children.
Like white LMA members, African American women formed clubs to bury their dead, to celebrate African American manhood, and to provide aid to their communities.
Three hundred African American women were members of the local Patriotic Association, which aided freed people during the war.
African American women formed their own club organizations after participating in federal Decoration Day ceremonies.
These vulnerable households continued to be threatened by racial violence.
The formation and preservation of African American households became a paramount goal for African American women.
During Reconstruction, white and black women faced the same challenge.
Southern women celebrated the return of their brothers, husbands, and sons, but couples separated for many years struggled to adjust.
Many of the former soldiers returned with physical or mental wounds.
White families became more accepting of suicide and divorce, while black families became less so.
Many families were impoverished because of the economic disaster in the South.
The dream of biracial democracy was shattered by violence.
White southerners could not imagine black free labor.
According to Carl Schurz, in the summer of 1865, southerners all agreed that negro work cannot be done without physical compulsion.
In the antebellum period, violence was used to enforce slave labor and to define racial difference.
During the post-emancipation period it was used to stifle black advancement and return to the old order.
The life in the antebellum South was based on slavery.
The labor system required unfree laborers because of the underclass.
It all was undergirded by a notion of white supremacy and black superiority.
Whites and blacks were considered to be fit for freedom and citizenship.
The adoption of the Thirteenth Amendment by the U.S. Congress destroyed the institution of American slavery and threw southern society into disarray.
Black codes and racial terrorism were used by southern whites to regain control of former slaves.
The Ku Klux Klan was one of many groups that sprang up after the war to intimidate African Americans and Republicans.
Riots against black political authority were one of the major forms of racial violence in the Reconstruction period.
During Reconstruction, there were riots in southern cities.
The most notable were the riots in Memphis and New Orleans in 1866, but other large-scale urban conflicts erupted in places including Laurens, South Carolina, in 1870, and another in New Orleans in 1874.
The centers of Republican control were cities.
White conservatives were not happy with the establishment of biracial politics and the influx of black residents.
In almost every conflict, white conservatives started violence in response to Republican rallies or elections in which black men were to vote.
The death toll of these conflicts is incalculable, and victims were overwhelmingly black.
African Americans were victims of everyday violence during Reconstruction.
The Civil Rights Act of 1866 gave African Americans the right to serve on juries.
The prosecution of white men for violence against black victims was rare.
White men beat or shot black men with relative impunity because of trivial squabbles, labor disputes, and crimes of passion.
Nightriders or bushwhackers were more likely to commit premeditated violence.
Nightriders wore disguises to curtail black political involvement.
Nightriders killed black candidates and frightened voters away from the polls.
They wanted to limit black economic mobility by making freed people who tried to purchase land too independent from the white masters they used to rely on.
They were terrorists who were determined to stop the erosion of the antebellum South.
The most notorious of these groups was the Ku Klux Klan.
By 1868, the Ku Klux Klan had spread to nearly every state of the former Confederacy.
The Klan groups sometimes overlap with criminal gangs or former Confederate groups.
Many groups that weren't associated with the Klan were called Ku Kluxers and "Ku Klux" because of the Klan's reputation and violence.
The Klan actions are not different from those of other groups, such as the White Line, the Knights of the White Camellia, and the White Brotherhood.
The South was part of a web of terror during Reconstruction.
Between August 1870 and December 1872, twenty-four Klan-style murders occurred in Panola County, Mississippi.
In Lafayette County, Klansmen drowned thirty black Mississippians in a single mass murder.
Sometimes the violence was aimed at black men or women who dared to be aggressive towards a white southerner.
The Klan targeted white politicians who supported civil rights.
Dozens of Republican politicians were killed while campaigning or in office.