ChAPTER 2 -- Part 5: The Rise of Civilization in the Middle
Larger, more elaborate housing and community ritual centers came about because of better tools and settlements.
In construction, houses were usually uniform.
Sun-dried bricks, wattle, and stone structures were assocated with early agricultural communities.
Improved techniques of food storage are essential.
Baskets and leather containers were first used.
Pottery, which was used to protect food from dust and water, was already used in the Middle East.
The Neolithic revolution was made possible by the surplus production that agriculture made possible.
Human communities were reconstructed at skara Brae in coastal scotland.
Grain, water, and other essentials are stored by political and religious leaders.
Most emerged and formed elite classes.
In the Neolithic Age, there were clay or stone hearths that were built into the walls or a hole in the roof.
The production of stone tools, weapons, and pottery was demarcated and there were raised sleeping areas along the walls.
The formation of elites was greatly enhanced by the development of agriculture and varied food supplies.
Tools security and comfort were created by each household.
These conditions spurred and weapons it needed, just as it wove its own baskets and produced its higher birth rates and lower mortality rates.
Families or individuals who proved crop yields were high over time.
Some regions produce materials that are in demand in other areas.
flint was the preferred material for axe blades.
It was necessary to clear the forest for the extension of cultivation in Europe.
The demand was so great that vil agers who lived near flint deposits could support themselves by mining the flint or crafting the flint heads and trading with people who lived far from the sources of production.
Exchanges set precedents for regional trade.
Other early sites include mia.
Evidence shows that women are depicted as goddesses.
At Hacilar, the history of human life in the Paleolithic and Neolithic ages comes mainly from surviving artifacts from campsites and early figurines that may have served as towns.
Stone tools, bits of pottery or cloth, and the remains of images of cult veneration and paintings that suggest they may be Stone Age dwellings can now be dated.
When they were oracles or cult priestesses.
As in the Laussel Venus, the objects from the same site and time period give us a good sense of the daily activities of women and their roles in reproduction and nurturing.
As we have seen in the Document on cave paintings, the material remains of the Stone Age era have not been found with animal heads.
Many of these insights into the social organization and thinking of early ettes may have been intended to depict goddesses and humans than works of art.
We know a lot about gender.
It is difficult to know what impact the shift to agriculture had on the social structure of the communities.
Well-defined social stratification, such as that which produces class iden tity, was not present.
Village alliances may have existed in some areas.
It is possible that all households in the community were given access to village lands and water in Neolithic times.
Women played a critical part in the domestication of plants because of their key roles as food gatherers.
Their position declined in many agricultural communities.
They have continued to work the fields in most cultures.
Heavy labor such as clearing land, hoeing, and plowing were taken over by men.
The irrigation systems that developed in most early centers of agriculture were controlled by men because they were monopolized by them.
Men took the lead in raising large animals associated with both farming and pastoral communities.
The social and economic position of women began to decline with the shift to sedentary agriculture, despite the fact that Neolithic art suggests that earth and fertility cults, which focused on feminine deities, retained their appeal.
Over time some of the early sedentary communities grew into larger and larger concentrations of cities and crafts that depended on human populations with ever more specialized craftspeople and differentiated social groups that on trade emerged in the Middle.
With a population of 2000 and 5000 people, the two towns would be seen as little more than large villages or small towns today.
They were the first stirrings of urban life.
The introduction in the 4th millennium b.c.e.
was made possible by their elites and craft specialists.
There were round houses of mud and brick in the early walled city.
Most early houses were based on sedentary agriculture and only a single room with mud plaster floors and a domed ceiling, but some houses had as many as three in modern Israeli occupied rooms.
The entry to these dwel ings was provided by a doorway and steps near the Jordan River.