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12 -- Part 8: Cultural Exchange in Central and Southern Asia to
On the first day of his expedition, a king marched two yojanas.
The venerable preceptor received six lotuses.
A long career is what Bhaskara had.
The raid in 1306-1307 was repulsed.
The Delhi sultanate was in decline during the 14th century and was unable to resist the armies of Timur, who took Delhi in 1388.
According to Timur's chronicler, the sultanate had 20,000 foot soldiers, 120 war elephants, and 10,000 horsemen.
Timur's men shot at their drivers as they tried to trap the elephants.
The sultan left the city to surrender.
Timur loaded the elephants with treasures from the city.
The sultanate was weakened by Timur's invasion.
The Delhi sultanate was conquered by the Mughals in 1526 and ruled over most of northern India until the 19th century.
In medieval India, local institutions played a bigger role in the lives of the majority of people than the state did.
Local castes gave members a sense of belonging and the local council oversaw law and order at the town or village level.
In India, vil age life is the norm like in China, Japan, and Southeast Asia.
The average farmer worked a small plot of land outside thevil age.
The family pooled their resources under the direction of the head.
Family solidarity was strengthened by these joint efforts.
The agricultural year started with plowing.
The plow had an iron-tipped share and a handle with which the farmer guided it.
Rice was sown at the beginning of the rainy season.
During the cold season, beans, lentils, and peas were grown and eaten in the spring.
Grains such as wheat, barley, and millet provided calories.
Another impor tant crop was sugarcane.
Vegetables, spices, fruit trees, and flowers were cultivated by some families.
Farmers raised animals.
Cattle, which were raised for plow ing and milk, hides, and horns, but Hindus did not slaughter them for meat, were the most valued.
Hindus were forbidden from eating beef like the Is lamic and Jewish prohibition.
Local craftsmen lived and worked in different parts of the town.
They were often organized into guilds with rules.
The textile industries were well developed.
Silk, linen, wool, and cotton fabrics were produced in large quantities and traded throughout India and beyond.
The cutting and polishing of precious stones was closely related to foreign trade.
Shops were open to the street in the city, while families lived on the floors above.
Milk and cheese, oil, spices, and perfumes are some of the items dealt with by the busi est.
The tavern keepers were disreputable.
A host of peddlers shuffled through towns and viled everything from needles to freshly cut flowers.
The caste system became mature in this period.
The members only ate with other members and married within the caste.
The members of high-status castes had to go through purification rituals to remove the taint from their contact with lower-caste individuals.
Indian men doing a variety of everyday jobs are depicted in a stone frieze.
Although the stone was carved to convey religious ideas, we can use it as a source for details of daily life as the sort of clothing men wore while working and how they carried loads.
The rules of the caste were enforced by each caste's governing body.
Those who were unable to live up to the rules were kicked out.
The unfortunates lived hard lives performing tasks that others considered lowly.
In north China and the Middle East, Vil ages were often wal ed.
The streets were not paved and cattle and sheep were free to roam.
The pond outside thevil age was the main source of water and a spawning ground for fish, birds, and mosquitoes.
The vil age gates were closed until the morning after the farmers returned from the fields.
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