In their own way, the leading theologians of the twentieth century advanced this fundamental view.
Karl Barth, an influential Swiss Protestant the c hapter 16: the revolution in western culture ologian, stressed human dependence on God, but concluded that there is no straight line from the mind of humans to God.
Many theologians of the twentieth century sought to reconstruct the ancient symbols and myths in order to see religious faith as a matter of trust instead of something "objectively" proven.
They believed that the traditional Christian image of God and the universe had been destroyed by scientific findings and historical scholarship.
The vision of reality expressed in the Bible is no longer believable for many educated people.
They believed that if Christianity was to endure as a meaningful teaching, it would have to create images that fit with scientific knowledge.
The phrase meant simply that the ancient image of God had passed into history.
This didn't mean that Christianity was obsolete, but that it had to find new forms to carry its message to the living.
Christian truth does not include the idea of a Supreme Being "out there" or "up there".
He insisted that God is not a special part of creation but rather Ultimate Reality.
The period following the Second World War was marked by a growing sense of Christian oneness.
The consciousness that all churches were being challenged by secularism in general and Marxism in particular made this possible.
The appeal and power of Christianity could be strengthened by a more united front, as religious leaders could see that many people were turning away from Christianity.
The World Council of Churches was formally established in 1948 in Switzerland.
Some two hundred separate denominations were brought into closer association.
Most Protestant churches, Anglicans, and Eastern Orthodox groups supported it.
Initially, the Vatican held back but later opened up relations.
The movement toward unity was boosted by the election of Pope John XII.
As leader of the largest group of Christians, John was in a position to help a lot, and he did so with the full force of his warm personality.
John broke down centuries-old barriers to communication with Protestants, despite the pope's claim to be the "one shepherd" of the Christian flock.
There was a new attitude of humility and affection toward the "separated brethren" and "men of good will" beyond the fold.
The document called for the harmonious coexistence of all faiths and social systems.
John's work for peace, both religious and secular, was carried on after his death by Pope Paul VI and the Second Vatican Council.
The new responsiveness of the papacy was dramatized by Paul, who traveled to the Holy Land, India, Latin America, and the UN headquarters in New York.
The Eastern Orthodox churches and Paul had friendlier relations.
He was a conservative on Catholic faith and morals.
John Paul I, who was a liberal, died within months of becoming pope.
He was replaced by a conservative pontiff in the mold of Paul VI.
John Paul II was the first non-Italian pope in over 400 years.
He was well-known for his resistance to the Communist government in Poland.
During his long reign as pope, John Paul encouraged the clergy to uphold traditional roles and rules, and he reinforced his advice by appointing conservative bishops.
Brazil is the world's largest Catholic country.
In 1995 the leading archbishop was replaced by a conservative who was opposed to social reform in Brazil.
Many liberal Catholics were disappointed by the lack of change on issues such as clerical celibacy, the use of contraceptives, and the admission of women to the priesthood.
The pope remained firmly opposed to the change for the Roman Church despite the break with centuries of tradition and the ordination of women as priests by the Anglican Church in Britain and the United States.
The pope spoke freely about political issues, despite the fact that the Catholic clergy must not hold any political office.
He consistently urged national leaders to avoid war, and he approved an important "pastoral letter" of the Catholic bishops of the United States condemning nuclear weapons.
It opposed the use of nuclear arms and called for an end to their testing and production.
The modern "culture of death" was attacked by John Paul.
The pope followed the path of Paul VI in pursuing closer ties with the Orthodox churches.
He hosted a historic meeting at the Vatican with the leader of the Eastern Orthodoxy.
They wanted to strengthen their positions of Church leadership and work together to check the influence of c hapter 16: the revolution in western culture Protestantism and secularism.
The issue of zones of Christian religious activity was divisive.
After the fall of communism, Roman Catholic bishops and missionaries entered the historically Orthodox lands of the former Soviet Union.
The legacy of John Paul was established in 2000.
The most sweeping apology for past sins by children of the Church was offered by the pope during the liturgy of the Sunday Mass in Saint Peter's Basilica.
He asked for God's forgiveness for the mistakes made during the preceding two thousand years.
As the Church moves forward with its evangelical mission, he declared that the "purification of memory" was essential.
General sins, sins in the service of truth, sins against Christian unity, sins against the Jews, and sins against the dignity of women and minorities were placed in seven different categories.
The continuing social revolution in the West was not altered by religious and philosophical teachings.
Technology was the main engine of the revolution, but psychologists, educators, and advertisers accelerated the rate of change.
New sexual attitudes and practices were the most visible of the changes.
Sex has been a big issue in all societies, from how to value it to how to deny it.
Sex can be seen as an impulse, a source of pleasure, an expression of physical love, a sign of gender, and a personal property.
The codes of behavior aim to balance the multiple functions of male and female sexuality.
While scientific and technological innovations were altering the economy and society in the West, religious and civic leaders made a determined effort to prevent changes in traditional sexual mores.
Puritan morality obscured the realities of sexual behavior during the Victorian Age.
Sigmund Freud showed that sexual oppression could cause psychic illness.
sexuality was revealed as a normal and powerful force in human behavior by Freud.
As the twentieth century progressed, other physicians, psychologists, and educa tors challenged all types of authoritarian controls over individuals--not only in sexual matters but in personal behavior as a whole.
After the two world wars, the age of "permissiveness" and "self-fulfillment" was at hand.
With moral, social, and legal constraints loosened, men and women gave freer rein to their instincts.
Publishers, theatri cal producers, broadcasters, and filmmakers exploited the sexual revolution.
Sex manual flourished, no one had to be ignorant.
The walls of literary censorship were leveled in nearly every Western nation after the release of the desire for sex.
Pornography, hard and soft, became readily available.
Until the advent of pornographic Web sites, X-rated videotapes for home use seemed to have been the ultimate in pornography.
Hugh Hefner built a thriving entertainment business around his magazine's theme of guilt-free sensuality.
"philosophy" is a modern form of historic hedonism.
The new hedonism goes beyond sexuality.
Huge in dustries have been built around the popular hunger for pleasure.
People in the West enjoy a lot of opportunities for personal satisfaction.
There is a darker side to the pleasures of freedom.
The consumption of illegal drugs throughout the Western world is an example of this.
The drug problem is a serious threat to the health of millions of individuals and to the functioning of every technological society.
Organized crime is a related problem.
The battle against drugs and crime is far from being won.
The stress placed on personal freedom within most democratic countries tends to counter the efforts of law enforcement.
Drugs, crime, and pornography are some of the activities that "good citizens" deplore.
Men and women born after the Second World War are affected by the changing ways of Western society.
As a rule, their fathers and mothers were also influenced by older ways to change their views or behavior.
The postwar generation in most Western countries grew up in a different culture.
The postwar period was a time of prosperity for the middle classes.
The existentialists pointed it out.
All this was heard and seen in the "instant" world of radio, television, films, records, and tapes.
Parents expected their children to accept these cultural gifts, but a lot of them did not.
Not having to struggle for a job, as most of their Depression-reared fathers and mothers had done, gave them more time to reflect on the surrounding culture and their relation to it.
The young people found a lot to object to.
Taking for granted the ability of "the system" to satisfy their needs, they saw that the revolution in western culture had a lot of hypocrisy, violence, and injustice.
At a time when the barri ers to doubt and idol-breaking had largely dissolved under the influence of thinkers like Freud, Sartre, and Tillich, these perceptions arose.
They shared some of the same goals: humaneness in personal relations, self-discovery and independence, sexual freedom and equality, simple enjoyments, love of nature and peace.
The young revolted against adult styles of dress and began to develop their own.
The long hair, beards, fatigue jackets, and jeans were symbolic challenges to the established order of values.
The young were suspicious of governments, corporations, and military organizations.
The promise of creative ideas and remedies was offered by the freshness of their approach and willingness to try something new.
The parents of this generation, having recovered from their initial shock and disapproval, were starting to see some promise in their children.
The voting age in the United States was lowered from 21 to 18 in 1971 as a result of a constitutional amendment.
The youth activity spread from colleges and universities to the rest of society.
Students formed a leading part of the larger youth culture, but much of their concern was with the campus environment.
Universities grew after the Second World War.
They had become a large group of people in the United States.
They were the principal workshops for the production and spread of specialized knowledge and represented hundreds of millions of dollars in capital investment.
Many students thought their universities were examples of corporate bureaucracy, a machine that reduced the individual to a number.
They wanted the university to be a service center for the larger society, and conduct research for the military establishment, as well as turning young people into servants of the state.
Individual courses and requirements were often seen as sterile and arbitrary.
At many educational centers around the world, student discontent was translated into protest in the 1960s.
The movement began at the University of California at Berkeley.
The "Free Speech Movement" of 1964 sought a larger exercise of student political rights on campus, as well as demands that professors spend more of their time teaching students.
Demonstrations, sit-ins, and classroom strikes followed in support of these demands.
The protests spread to hundreds of other campuses, and local demands were combined with demands on the nation as a whole to end the war in Vietnam.
Check the power of the military-industrial complex to stop discrimination against minorities.
The student actions were led by a small group of radicals who wanted to change the social order.
Their immediate demands had enough merit and attractiveness to win the support of moderate students.
More students joined the action when college administrations overreacted.
The United States invasion of Cambodia in May 1970 was the climax of protest fervor.
National Guardsmen were called in to restore order after student violence at Kent State University.
During a "clearing maneuver," they shot and killed four students; a few days later, state patrolmen killed two youths in a confrontation at Jackson State College in Mississippi.
There was a strong reaction against the student movement.
Many Americans were shocked by the killings and others blamed the students for damaging property.
The movement lost a lot of its force after Kent State.
Most students recoiled from the violent turn it had taken, others became convinced that it had reached a dead end, and still others thought that the system had been opened up a bit.
The American student protests of the 1960s did not achieve great immediate success.
They gave added force to university reforms that expanded student rights and benefits.
Students in Europe, Japan, and Latin America protested against inadequate facilities.
They wanted more power over national affairs.
Strikes and demonstrations had to be put down in Mexico City and Tokyo because of the student revolt in Paris in 1968.
Discontent and protest are common among university students.
Rarely before had protest been linked so closely to the loss of youth from the established culture and order.
College campuses in the United States grew peaceful in the 70s.
To careers, to greater "inner awareness," to religion, or even to self-centered ways that have been called the "me" generation were some of the personal concerns students withdrew to.
Preparing for a good job was the first concern of a majority of students in the 1980s and 1990s.
The freedom of lifestyle that previous students had worked for was one of the reasons for their changed attitude and conduct.
The tradition of humanism in the West is linked to the core values of the youth culture.
The tradition supports equality for both young and old.
It's a fact that women have suffered severe deprivation in most civilizations and that education and political rights have not been given to them.
After the end of the Civil War in 1865, feminists in the United States undertook a long and painful campaign to get equality of opportunity with men.
Women began to insist on broader legal and political rights as they moved into jobs in industry, commerce, and education.
Among their leaders were Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony.
Some females and males resisted their demand for the right to vote.
The revolution in western culture able to deal with problems of government and that political equality with men would diminish feminine charm and loosen family ties were charged by opponents.
The "suffragettes" pushed on.
The politicians responded.
The Nineteenth Amendment to the Constitution was proposed after Congress was impressed by the contributions of women to the American effort in the First World War.
Eliminating all restrictions on voting based on sex was approved by the states in 1920.
Since then most other Western nations and Japan have extended the right to vote to women, but the female vote appeared to make little difference in the course of politics and legislation.
After the approval of the Nineteenth Amendment, interest in women's rights in America waned.
By the early 1970s, the women's liberation movement was in full swing.
Since 1920, social conditions have changed a lot, with more women working outside the home and contraceptive devices making it easier for women to control their fertility.
Feminism was limited to a small group of "emancipated" women, but books, magazines, and the mass media soon aroused the enthusiasm of hundreds of thousands.
She pointed to the social and psychological pressures that kept women in the home, the false notions about female sexuality, and the stereotypes of female behavior.
Friedan founded the National Organization for Women in 1966 in order to further her cause.
The women's movement has employed both advocacy and political action.
Its leaders want an end to discrimination.
The amendment to the Constitution that would have given equal rights to women was submitted to the fifty states for approval in 1972.
Men and women with traditional views and some women who feared that it might take away from them existing legal benefits were opposed to the ERA.
The proposed amendment failed to win approval in at least thirty-eight states, as required by the Constitution.
The amendment was reintroduced in Congress in 1985 after Ronald Reagan and the Republican party opposed it.
The proposal's fate is in question.
Feminism believes in a wide range of beliefs about the family, sexual relations, and lifestyles.
Contrary to what some critics of the movement say, very few feminists want to work with men.
Most of them want to open all social roles to both genders.
An increasing number of men express agreement with this goal and view it as an enrichment of life for themselves as well as for women.
Family relations and responsibilities have become more flexible as a result of this growing feeling for sharing.
The traditional family unit is being challenged by variant forms: the one-person household, the childless household, the single-parent household, and the same-sex household are rising in numbers.
During the 1980s and 1990s, abortion was the most controversial issue affecting American women.
In most parts of the world, abortion is legal, but in the United States it was illegal until 1973.
The antiabortion laws of Texas and Georgia were challenged in the federal courts because they violated the constitutional protection of a woman's rights.
The Supreme Court decided that no state could prevent a woman from having an abortion during the first six months of her pregnancy.
The Texas and Georgia laws were declared invalid because of this principle.
Many church groups and individuals argued that a fetus is a person and therefore abortion is murder.
They protested and were encouraged to expect changes in the makeup of the Supreme Court during the Reagan years.
Reagan's appointments to the high bench brought about a decided shift in the view of abortion and civil rights.
The issue is still controversial and is an important factor in electoral politics.
The Fourth United Nations Con ference on Women was held in Beijing, China in 1995.
It was attended by five thousand delegates from 189 countries.
The conference's concluding "Platform for Action" contains a declaration that all women have the right of sexual and reproductive control over their own bodies.
Most of the delegations from Muslim and Roman Catholic countries disagreed with the declaration.
The central thrust of the conference deliberations was for the economic and political empowerment of women and their protection from physical violence.
Homosexuals called for the right to live according to their sexual nature.
In the 70s, gay men and lesbians sought changes in laws and institutional practices that would prohibit discrimination against them.
The movement to win public acceptance for sexual diversity encountered fierce hostility because their aims ran counter to traditional Judeo-Christian moral teachings.
The sudden appearance of a mysteri ous viral disease in the 1980s made this feel worse.
Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome is a disease that can be transmitted through bodily fluids.
In the 1990s, the AIDS threat waned in advanced Western societies as drugs to manage the disease were developed and the general level of tolerance for male and female homosexuality increased.
The rise of homosexuals to the status of an organized interest group challenging traditional values and practices has led to fierce conflicts over such issues as "gays in the military" and hate crimes legislation.
The frustration of youth, women, and other groups outside the mainstream gave rise in the 1960s and 1970s to a widespread rejection of accepted ways of altering institutions.
Politicians, parents, teachers, and preachers emphasized the principles of majority rule, proper channels, and legitimate authority.
The answers to the questions are not clear.
Some people argue that the aim is more important than the means in social actions.
The use of violence toward a good end would be permissible, but its use to defend a bad institution would be condemned.
The belief in "acceptable" violence was supported by the writings of Luther, Jefferson, Marx, and Bakunin.
The belief was most popular with the frustrated and despairing person, the adventurous, and the instinctive rebel.
Nonviolence has been a way of life for some men and women in both the Western and non-Western worlds for hundreds of years.
In the twentieth century, this historic practice was modified to serve as the basis for a new method of social change.
Its advocates believed that the use of violence brings on counter violence and that it creates new tensions and problems that perpetuate the chain of inhumane actions and counteractions.