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Chapter 8 Review Questions

- Chapter 13 contains answers and explanations.

- A bucket is whirled in a vertical circle with a rope tied to it.
- The bucket has a mass of 3 kilograms.

- A uniform meter stick of mass 1 kilogram is hanging from a thread.

- If the distance between two point particles is doubled, then the force between them decreases by a factor of 4 and increases by a factor of 2.

- The mass of the dwarf planet is 1/600 and the distance from Earth is 1/15.

- You are looking at a planet that is in the middle of the sun.

- A robot probe lands.
- The diameter of the planet is 8 x 106 m.

- You can write your answer in both m/s2 and g's.

- The Earth has a mass of 6 x 1000 km and is in a constant circle around the Sun.

- An amusement park ride consists of a large cylinder that rotates around its central axis as passengers stand against the inner wall of the cylinder.

- The passengers feel pinned against the wall of the cylinder as it rotates.

- Don't include friction.

- The centripetal force is given by and the centripetal acceleration is given by.

- A force that makes an object rotate is called Torque.
- Torques can be clockwise or counterclockwise.

- Universal gravitation can be linked up with circular motion.

- Robert Hooke was a British physicist who helped pave the way for simple motion.
- Newton's laws of static equilibrium made it possible to show a relationship between stress and strain.
- Hooke's Law is one of the laws he developed after building upon these.
- The concise mathematical relationship of a spring was discovered by Hooke.

- In this section, we will focus on periodic motion that is simple and easy to understand.

- There is a fixed block on the left side of the wall.
- The spring is said to be in its equilibrium position when it is not stretched or compressed.

- The net force on the block is zero when the block is in equilibrium.

- There is a spring at rest.
- When we pull the block to the right, it will experience a force pulling back toward equilibrium.
- The block will once again be pushed toward the equilibrium position by a force.
- The block passes through the equilibrium position again, but this time it is traveling to the right.
- This back-and-forth motion will continue indefinitely if this is taking place in ideal conditions, and the block will oscillate from these positions in the same amount of time.
- The block at the end of this spring has a physical example of SHM.

- Since the block is decelerating, there must be some force behind it.
- The spring exerts a force on the block that is proportional to its displacement from its equilibrium point.

- This is called Hooke's Law.
- Hooke's Law states that the force is a restoring force.
- The force wants to return the object to its equilibrium position.
- The force was to the right when the block was on the left, and it was to the left when the block was on the right.
- In all cases of the extreme left or right, the spring tends to return to its original position.
- The force helps to maintain the movement of the body.

- We would have to exert a lot of force to keep the spring in this state.

- The number tells us how far away from equilibrium the block will travel.

- The block's motion can be described in terms of energy transfers.

- The more work you have to do, the more potential energy that's stored.

- The block's energy transfers can be described as follows.
- The elastic energy of the system increases when you pull the block out.
- The block moves when the potential energy turns into energy.
- All the energy is in motion.
- As the block continues through equilibrium, it transforms the spring's energy into elastic potential energy.

- This method can only calculate the maximum velocity in a spring.

- The AP physics 1 exam won't ask you to calculate other velocities at other points because it's not uniform accelerated motion.

- The result is a oscillations of 8.0 cm.
- Determine the total energy and speed of the block when it's less than 4 cm from equilibrium.

- The total energy is the sum of the two energies.

- The block is at rest.
- The block has an initial speed of 2.0 m/s.

- When the spring's potential energy has been transformed into the block's initial energy, it will come to rest.

- The number of cycles that can be completed in a given time interval is a way of indicating the rapidity of the oscillations.

- You can always get the frequencies if you have the period.
- The period and Frequency are inverses of each other.

- A block on the end of a spring moves from maximum spring stretch to maximum spring compression in 0.25 s.

- The time required for one full cycle is defined as the period.

- It's only half a cycle when you move from one end of the region to the other.
- 2 s is 1/(0.5 s)

- A student is observing a block.
- Determine its frequencies in hertz and seconds.

- The force constant of the spring and the mass of the block are two of the defining properties of the spring-block oscillator.

- Let's look at the equations.
- If we had a small mass on a very stiff spring, we would expect that the strong spring would cause the mass to change shape quickly.

- A block is attached to a spring and set into motion.

- A student is doing an experiment.
- In the first trial, the amplitude is 3.0 cm, while in the second trial it is 6.0 cm.
- The values of the period, Frequency, and maximum speed of the block can be compared.

- The period and Frequency are not dependent on the amplitude.
- The period and frequencies in the second trial will be the same as in the first trial, because the same spring and block were used.
- The maximum speed of the block will be greater in the second trial.
- The second system has more energy to convert to kinetic when the block is passing through equilibrium.

- The force constant of a single spring is the same force on the block as the pair of springs shown in each case.

- The second spring is stretched.

- The simple motion follows this cycle.

- We've seen a block sliding back and forth on a table, but it could also move vertically.
- The only difference would be that gravity would cause the block to move downward, to an equilibrium position at which the spring would not be at its natural length.

- There is a spring hanging from a support.
- The upward force of the spring is balanced by the downward force of gravity as the block is in equilibrium.

- Our net force is zero since it is not moving up or down.

- The vertical spring can be treated the same as the horizontal spring at this point.

- If a question asks about the total length of the spring at a given moment, you don't need to worry about this.

- The block is pulled down a distance of 2.0 cm after it comes to rest.

- When the block is at the lowest position in its cycle, the spring is stretched a maximum of 7 cm, and a minimum of 5 cm when the block is at its highest position.

- The simple pendulum has many of the same features as the spring-block oscillator, but the displacement of the pendulum is measured by the angle that it makes with the vertical, rather than by its linear distance from the equilibrium position.

- The equilibrium position has zero displacement.

- The pendulum's energy and speed are maximized when it passes through the equilibrium position.

- There is one important difference despite the similarities.
- There is a restoring force that is proportional to the displacement.

- The motion of a simple pendulum is not simple.

- The periods and frequencies are not dependent on the mass of the weight.

- There is a period of 1 s on Earth.

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