Global warming has already had an impact in the far north, which includes the tundra and forests.
As snow and ice melt, they reveal darker and more absorbent surfaces.
Earth is warmed even more because more radiation is absorbed.
The smallest area of sea ice on record was covered in the summer of 2007.
Animals such as polar bears, seals, and seabirds are at risk because of the decrease in habitat.
The likelihood of fires increases with higher temperatures.
More coastal and inland flooding, flash floods, and erosion can be caused by melting polar ice.
Reducing CO 2 emissions by industrialized nations is the only solution to global warming.
CO 2 is absorbed by forests as they grow.
Carbon is stored in wood, leaves, and soil.
The CO 2 is released when the forest is cut down.
Paying countries not to cut down their forests would be a solution to the problem.
This would slow global warming.
The world's population could be affected by global warming.
The level of the seas would be raised due to the melting of the polar ice caps.
Major coastal cities in the United States, including New York, Los Angeles, and Miami, would be under water.
The Great Barrier Reef in Australia is under increased stress due to global warming.
Coral can't build their skeletons because of this stress.
Oysters and sea urchins are suffering because of increased acidification of the oceans due to an increase in CO 2 dissolved in the oceans.
Carbon dioxide from the atmosphere is dissolved in the oceans by combining with H 2 O.
The oceans are becoming more acidic because of increased atmospheric carbon dioxide.
Many marine organisms, including reef-building corals and animals that build shells, need this compound.
Coral reefs provide shoreline protection and support a great diversity of commercial fish species, so their destruction would be a great loss.
Many food chains that include shell-building animals are negatively affected.
The formation of a hole in the protective ozone layer has been caused by the accumulated air of chlorofluorocarbons.
The incidences of skin cancer worldwide have increased due to the increase in UV light reaching Earth.
The introduction of a new species can threaten native wildlife.
Nonnative species can grow, reproduce, and spread without limits.
Invasive species can kill native species.
Invasive species don't have to come from another country.
Lake trout are native to the Great Lakes.
They compete with native cutthroat trout for resources and habitat in Wyoming.
Humans are the main spreaders of invasive species.
Ships carry aquatic organisms.
In crates around the world, insects are carried in wood.
People who are unaware of the consequences release animals they don't want in the wild.
The problem of pythons in the Everglades has become frightening.
They grow as long as 19 feet and hunted native rabbits that were close to extinction.
Billions of dollars are spent each year on removal and/or rehabilitation of invasive species.
The African honeybee is a very aggressive honeybee that was brought to Brazil in 1956 to breed a honeybee that would produce more honey in the tropics than the Italian honeybee.
The African honeybees have been spreading throughout the Americas.
Ten people were killed by bees in the United States by the year 2000.
The zebra mussel, a fingernail-sized mollusk native to Asia, was discovered in a lake near Detroit in 1988.
Scientists theorize that a ship accidentally carried the mussel from Europe to the Great Lakes.
Without a natural predator, the population exploded.
They were discovered when they were found to have blocked the water intake pipes.
The zebra mussel has caused millions of dollars of damage.
Several native species with extinction are threatened by the influx of the zebra mussel.
A new niche can be exploited by an introduced species.
It can hurt native species.
Scientists have developed pesticides that kill organisms that we don't like.
There are pesticides that kill mice and rats.
The pesticides save lives by increasing food production and by killing animals that carry and cause diseases like bubonic plague and Malaria.
Pesticide exposure can cause cancer in humans.
The development of resistant strains of pests is ensured by spraying with pesticides.
The pests are stronger now.
More people will be exposed to toxic chemicals because we have to spray more and more.
Biological control is an alternative to spraying pesticides.
Change the crop planted in a field.
You must be careful that you don't disrupt a delicate ecological balance by introducing an alien species.
Male insect pests can be destroyed by exposing them to radiation and then releasing them into the environment to mate unsuccessfully with females.
The chapter gave information about Big ideas: EVO, ENE, IST, and SYI.
Although there are no complicated chemical equations or pathways in this chapter, you must connect some of the concepts from earlier chapters, such as photosynthesis, cellular respiration, and evolution.
The study of the interactions of organisms and populations with each other and with their physical environment is called ecology.
Populations have a number of properties, including size, density, dispersion, and survivorship curves.
A population is a group of people who live in the same area and can interact with each other.
The growth of a population can be limited by two factors.
Competition for food, the build up of waste, and disease are density dependent factors.
Density-independent factors include earthquakes, storms, naturally occurring fires and floods.
If there are few or no limiting factors, a population will grow and exceed its carrying capacity.
The population will either decrease or die as a result.
The organisms that live in one area make up a community.
They are characterized by their density and diversity.
The most successful communities have the greatest diversity and are not too dense.
In a changing environment, a diverse community has a better chance of survival.
This idea is related to the concepts of evolution and natural selection.
There are five categories of interactions within a community.
All living things rely on free energy.
Organisms must exchange matter with the environment.
When you talk about the flow of energy in a food chain, remember that producers capture light energy and convert it into food through the process of photosynthesis.
Only 10% of the energy in a food chain is converted into organic matter.
Animals along the way lose the rest to heat and cellular respiration.
The higher the trophic levels, the more toxins enter at the bottom of the food chain.
The phenomenon is called biological magnification.
This refers to the ecology.
Humans threaten Earth in many ways.
Our population is growing fast.
We waste natural resources, destroy animal habitats, and pollute the air and water.
Acid rain and acidification of the oceans are two examples of how humans negatively impact our world.
Do you have remedies for these problems?
The Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant in Japan was flooded in 2011. tons of radioactive materials were released into the environment because of the flooding.
Most sea life in the Pacific Ocean survived the initial exposure to massive amounts of radiation, but scientists are unsure about what will happen in the future.
The climograph shows the mean temperature and precipitation in the United States for the past 50 years.
Predict the appearance of the climograph if carbon dioxide levels continue to rise and the United States becomes hotter and dryer over the next 50 years.
There is a dry, cold grassland in Siberia.
There are many species that are not found anywhere else in the world that are found in a biodiversity hotspot.
Only 2% of Earth's total landmass is occupied by bird species.
Habitat destruction caused by ongoing human activities is one of the causes of the hotspots.
The deer and elk populations in the park have been reduced by wolves.
This dynamic is an example of level ecology.
The graph shown below is an idealized survivorship graph.